Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is known as a protein that induces new bone in heterotopic sites. This study was conducted to assess the cell-biological effects of crude porcine BMP and 3 pulp-capping materials by implantation and cell culture methods. The following results were obtained: a new bone site of approx 5mm in diameter were induced in the hind limbs, which confirmed the osteoinductive activity of the crude BMP. The pulp-capping materials hardly influenced the calcification of rat dental pulp (RDP) cells. Our data also suggest that the effect of the crude BMP on the proliferation and calcification depended on its quantity. The finding of a large increase in the ALPase activity and the formation of mineralized nodules caused by the crude BMP , suggests that the crude BMP enhanced the calcification by RDP cells. Consequently, it is quite possible that crude porcine BMP could be used as a pulp-capping material.