Bioactive ceramics have the ability to chemically bond to bone. This class of biomaterials can be used as coatings on metallic implants, alloplastic bone defect fillers and as scaffold for tissue engineering. The most widely used bioactive ceramics are hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2. This study presents new bioactive ceramics based on Nb2O5 and Ta2O5. These materials were produced from bioinert ceramics chemically activated by an alkali hydrothermal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses on samples incubated in simulated body fluid showed the presence of bone-like apatite, confirming that the modified ceramics surface became bioactive.