Effect of Saturation and Post Processing on 3D Printed Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds
Three dimensional printing was investigated for fabricating hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite scaffolds using calcium phosphate based ceramics and calcium phosphate cement chemistry. Scaffolds were formed by printing an aqueous sodium phosphate solution on the powder bed consisting of a mixture of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and calcium hydroxide powders. The sodium phosphate solution was functioning as a binder material and also as the initiator of the wet chemical reaction. Compressive mechanical properties of printed samples were examined as a function of saturation level that was inversely proportional to the powder to liquid ratio. To increase mechanical properties and obtain hydroxyapatite and β-TCP composites, the printed samples were sintered. The effect of sintering parameters including dwell time and sintering temperature were also examined. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine material composition at different stages of the manufacturing process and to confirm the presence of HA and β-TCP in the final stage. The effect of sintering procedure on the surface topology of the samples was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Marcelo Prado and Cecília Zavaglia
T. D. Szucs and D. Brabazon, "Effect of Saturation and Post Processing on 3D Printed Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 396-398, pp. 663-666, 2009