Evolution of Stress-Induced Surface Damage and Stress-Relaxation of Electroplated Cu Films at Elevated Temperatures
The reaction induced phase separation aimed for the distribution of nano-structured particles has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in ternary Ti-Si-N film via N+ implantation. The fabrication of Ti-20at%Si film has made on Si substrates by ion beam sputtering (IBS), and then N+ implantation with 50 keV has been conducted on these films. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) from as-deposited film shows amorphous Ti-Si. As-deposited Ti-Si film exhibited high stability even for the heat treatment at 773K for 3600s. N+ implantation induced the direct formation of nano crystalline of fcc-TiNx within the Ti-Si film. The XPS depth profiling and chemical shift suggest that the preferential nitriding of Ti accompanied with the segregation of SiNx occurred during N-implantation.
Z.Y. Zhong, H. Saka, T.H. Kim, E.A. Holm, Y.F. Han and X.S. Xie
S. J. Hwang et al., "Evolution of Stress-Induced Surface Damage and Stress-Relaxation of Electroplated Cu Films at Elevated Temperatures", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 475-479, pp. 3641-3646, 2005