Magnesium - Science, Technology and Applications

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Authors: Yong Wei Song, Da Yong Shan, En Hou Han
Abstract: Magnesium alloys are considered as “difficult to plate” metal. The pretreatment processes play a key role for plating. The pretreatments of alkaline cleaning, chromic acid etching and hydrofluoric acid activating were carried out and the microstructures investigated by SEM and EDAX in detail. The hydrofluoric acid activating time of 8 minutes was determined by Potential-Time curve. The experimental results showed that the alkaline cleaning moved the grease and oils off the substrate surface, but there was no apparent surface morphology change. The chromic acid etching was a very critical step, and the optimum etching time of 1 minute was chosen; the eutectic α was severely etched, and the chromic compounds were mainly formed on the surface. During the hydrofluoric acid activating, the white activating product of magnesium fluoride was preferentially generated on the β–phase, and obvious morphology change has been observed on the alloy substrate surface.
Authors: Young Gee Na, Dan Eliezer, Kwang Seon Shin
Abstract: The development of new components with magnesium alloys for the automotive industry has increased in recent years due to their high potential as structural materials for low density and high strength/weight ratio demands. However, the limited mechanical properties of the magnesium alloys have led to search new kind of magnesium alloys for better strength and ductility. The main objective of this research is to investigate the mechanical properties and the corrosion behavior of new wrought magnesium alloys; Mg-Zn-Ag (ZQ) and Mg-Zn-Si (ZS) alloys. The ZQ6X and ZS6X samples were fabricated using hot extrusion method. Tensile tests and immersion tests were carried out on the specimens from the extruded rods, which contained different amounts of silver or silicon, in order to evaluate the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior. The microstructure was examined using optical and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) and EDS. The results showed that the addition of silver improved the mechanical properties but decreased the corrosion resistance. The addition of silicon improved both mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. These results can be explained by the effects of alloying elements on the microstructures of the Mg-Zn alloys such as grain size and precipitates caused by the change in precipitation and recrystallization behavior.
Authors: Yeon Jun Chung, Jung Lae Park, Nack J. Kim, Kwang Seon Shin
Abstract: The effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of Mg-Al alloys were investigated in this study. In order to improve the high temperature mechanical properties, Sr or Mm was added to the Mg-9Al alloy. The effect of Sn on the Mg-9Al alloy was also examined since Sn was expected to improve the high temperature mechanical properties by forming the thermally stable Mg2Sn phase. The specimens used in this study were produced on a 320 ton cold chamber high-pressure die casting machine. The microstructures of the specimens were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and tensile and creep tests were performed at elevated temperatures. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature, 150oC and 200oC using an initial strain rate of 2×10-4/sec. In addition, tensile creep tests were conducted at the stress levels of 50 MPa and 70 MPa. From the microstructure analyses of the specimens after heat treatment at 400oC for 12 hours, it was found that most of the Mg17Al12 precipitate dissolved into the matrix, while the thermally stable phases continued to exist. The high temperature mechanical properties of the Mg-9Al alloys were found to improve significantly with the additions of Sr, Mm and Sn, due to the formation of the thermally stable precipitates.
Authors: Jie Dong, Z.F. Li, Xiao Qing Zeng, Chen Lu, Wen Jiang Ding
Abstract: A strong static magnetic field (SSMF) of about 10 T was introduced to the aging process of AZ91 magnesium alloy. Comparing with conventional aging, in the first stage of aging with SSMF, discontinuous precipitation of Mg17Al12 at grain boundary was accelerated. The magnetically induced grain boundary migration might be responsible for this acceleration effect. The density of the Mg17Al12 continuous precipitates inside the grains was increased and the precipitation plates became thinner in SSMF pre-aged specimens, which might be ascribed to the retarded volume diffusion resulted from the SSMF.
Authors: Do Yeon Hwang, Akira Shimamoto
Abstract: In this study, dynamic behaviors of cracks under dynamic biaxial stress were investigated. We conducted static and dynamic loading fracture experiments on a magnesium alloy (AZ31B-O) under equitable and inequitable biaxial stress by using a hydraulic high-speed biaxial experimental machine. We processed specimens as the cross type with a crack. Different kinds of cracks were defined by their crack angles. We analyzed the results using the caustic method. The experiments revealed some important findings; there is a negative relation between the fracture toughness value and the plate thickness of the magnesium alloy sheet specimen; the fracture toughness value decreases when the crack has an angle different from the loading direction; the fracture toughness value decreases significantly under inequitable biaxial stress.
Authors: Yasumi Ito, Akira Shimamoto
Abstract: Fatigue crack propagation tests of magnesium alloy were conducted under conditions of biaxial and uniaxial loading by using a cruciform specimen with the biaxial fatigue tester. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of biaxial stress on the fatigue crack growth properties ⊿KⅠ-da/dN. From these comprehensive experiments, the remarkable effect was found in the specific biaxiality ratio σx 0/σy 0 on the ⊿KⅠ-da/dN relationship. When biaxiality ratio was 0.5, it turned out that the fatigue crack propagation velocity of a magnesium alloy becomes very slow. In other biaxiality ratios, fatigue crack propagation velocity was influenced in some extent. Fatigue crack propagation velocity decreases a little as the stress which acts in parallel with a crack increases.
Authors: Da Yong Shan, Rong Fa Zhang, En Hou Han
Abstract: Al2O3 thin film was formed on pure magnesium and its anodic coating by sol-gel method. SEM observation and EDX analysis showed that Al2O3 film could not totally cover the surface of base metal, but they blocked small pores when they were formed on anodic coating. Potentiodynamic polarization test indicated that Al2O3 films improved corrosion resistance of both anodizing coating and base metal, and the effect on anodizing coating was better than on base metal.
Authors: Yu Fan, Guo Hua Wu, Hong Tao Gao, Chun Quan Zhai
Abstract: The effects of RE and Ca on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of AZ91 have been studied by Zwick electronic universal material testing machine, X-ray diffraction, corrosion test and polarization experiment. The results showed that the addition of RE and Ca could improve the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of AZ91 with addition of 1%RE and 1%Ca increased by 15.9%. The addition of 1%RE in AZ91 made the corrosion rate decrease from 0.453mg·cm-2·d-1 to 0.178mg·cm-2·d-1. Furthermore, with adding 1%Ca in AZ91+1%RE, the corrosion rate of AZ91 decreased to 0.086mg·cm-2·d-1 due to the formation of reticular Al2Ca phases, which acts as an effective barrier against corrosion.
Authors: Shao Yong Xu, Han Xue Cao, Si Yuan Long, Xiaoan Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhong He Zhang
Abstract: To promote a technological use of Mg alloy castings on motorbike, a technical routine for material substitution was demonstratively presented with engine crankshaft case and motorbike wheels. It was shown that, subjected to failure analysis, comparative FEM analyses, structural redesign, numerical optimization of casting process and strict tests of prototypes, the service performance of the Mg castings can be ensured, in addition to the performance improvement stemming from the advantageous properties of Mg alloys.
Authors: Ivan A. Barannik, V.A. Aleksandrov, A.M. Bashmakov, A.F. Shevchenko

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