Advanced Materials Forum III

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Authors: Ming Xia Gao, Yi Pan, Filipe J. Oliveira, G.Y. Yang, Joaquim M. Vieira
Abstract: The growth of SiC single crystals from SiC saturated Co-Si molten alloy fluxes is reported. Experiments were performed by two routes: liquid phase sintering of CoSi/SiC and Si/Co/SiC powder compacts and melt infiltration of CoSi alloy into porous SiC powder preforms. Results showed that euhedral SiC crystals, many of which appeared as polygonal or plate shaped single crystals, grew from the SiC saturated CoSi molten alloy. The largest SiC crystals exceed half millimetre in size, after 25h of isothermal dwelling at 1700°C in the melt infiltration process. The nature of the growth mechanism, the crystal defects and the effects of constituent materials, temperature and time on the abnormal grain growth of SiC single crystals are further discussed.
Authors: Carlos Marques, Nuno Franco, Rui Coelho da Silva, André Wemans, Manuel J.P. Maneira, Eduardo Alves
Abstract: Optical and structural properties of single crystalline α-Al2O3 were changed by the implantation of high fluences of Ni ions. Sapphire single crystals with <0001> orientation were implanted at room temperature with 150 keV nickel ions. Implantation fluences were in the range 0.3×1015 to 1.8×1017 cm-2. After implantation the optical absorption spectra reveal the presence of a band peaking in the region 300 - 500 nm, depending on the retained fluence. This is usually related to the presence of metallic particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the presence of metallic Ni after implantation. Annealing in oxidizing atmosphere promotes the ecrystallization of the host matrix along with the formation of NiAl2O4 as deduced from Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and confirmed through XRD. In vacuum the particles formed are metallic like with some Ni spinel also present. The control of the implantation fluence, temperature and annealing atmosphere allows tailoring the component phases.
Authors: Shinzo Kohjiya
Abstract: . Generally rubber products are a typical soft material, and a composite of a nano-filler (typically, carbon black or particulate silica) and a rubber (natural rubber and various synthetics are used). The properties of these soft nano-composites have been well known to depend on the dispersion of the nano-filler in the rubbery matrix. The most powerful tool for the elucidation of it has been transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopic techniques are based on the projection of 3-dimensional (3D) body on a plane (x, y plane), thus the structural information along the thickness (z axis) direction of the sample is difficult to obtain. This paper describes our recent results on the dispersion of carbon black (CB) and particulate silica in natural rubber (NR) matrix observed by TEM combined with electron tomography (3D-TEM) technique, which enabled us to obtain images of 3D nano-structure of the sample. Thus, 3D images of CB and silica in NR matrix are visualized and analyzed in this communication. These results are precious ones for the design of soft nano-composites, and the technique will become an indispensable one in nanotechnology.
Authors: Sofoklis S. Makridis, Eleni Pavlidou, A. Neudert, J. McCord, Rudolf Schäfer, George C. Hadjipanays, Dimitris Niarchos, Athanasios K. Stubos
Abstract: The Sm(Co0.71Fe0.1Cu0.12Zr0.04B0.03)7.5 (2:17 type magnet) melt spun ribbons have been produced from bulk as cast samples at low (5 m/sec) to medium (40 m/sec) wheel speed by the melt spinning technique. The crystallographic texture on wheel side, the microstructural characteristics and magnetic properties have been investigated. The soft magnetic fcc-Co forms a very high degree of texture especially at low velocities but for the first time a degree of texturing has been remarked on fcc-Co grains. Diffraction patterns have been traced by x-ray scattering using Cu-Kα radiation on the wheel and free side of the ribbons. In the pattern of ribbons which have been produced at 5 m/sec the (002) plane of fcc-Co is almost the dominant peak while at 40 m/sec this peak diminishes in parallel to the appearance of the structure type TbCu7 and (111) plane of fcc-Co structure. Scanning electron microscopy on the wheel side of the ribbons has been used to observe microstructural characteristics and showed that the formation of texture is attributed to the appearance of dendrites, with their long axis parallel to the longitudinal direction of the ribbons. Dendrites’ density depends on the wheel speed of the roller and boron content. It decreases as the velocity increases while for constant velocity of about 40 m/sec, higher boron content stabilizes higher degree of texturing. Magnetic properties are also examined from low to medium wheel speed by also using the magnetooptical Kerr microscopy. Therefore coercive field as high as 3.4 kOe and reduced remanence (mr) of ~0.76 has been detected from the hysteresis curve for as spun Sm Co0.71Fe0.1Cu0.12Zr0.04B0.03)7.5 ribbons at 5 m/sec.
Authors: Lyudmila I. Khirunenko, Yu.V. Pomozov, Mikhail G. Sosnin, Vitor J.B. Torres, João A.P. Coutinho, R. Jones, Nikolay V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann, Patrick R. Briddon
Abstract: The influence of Ge content on the local vibrational mode of substitutional carbon in Si-rich Si1-xGex single crystals has been investigated by infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy and ab initio modeling methods. Czochralski-grown Si1-xGex samples doped with boron and carbon have been studied. The Ge fractional content was varied from x=0.004 to x=0.044. To reveal the CS-related absorption band in the Si1-xGex the difference spectra between carbon-lean and carbon-reach Si1-xGex samples with the same Ge content were studied. We have found that the CS-related absorption band in the Si1-xGex alloys red-shifts and broadens with increasing Ge content. It has been found that at x0.015 the CS absorption band consists of two overlapping lines corresponding to different combinations of Si and Ge atoms neighboring the CS atom. The calculations show that substitutional carbon atoms avoid Ge ligand atoms, and should be found in Si-rich regions. These results also reveal that the softening of the CS mode frequency arises from the SiGe volumic expansion.
Authors: P.S. André, Armando Pinto, J.L. Pinto, Rute A. Sá Ferreira, Sonia S. Nobre, P. Monteiro, Luís D. Carlos
Abstract: The main information transmission limitation in optical communications employing SiO2 optical fibres is imposed by the optical pulses temporal broadening, resulting from the dispersive properties of the transmission medium (chromatic dispersion). Usually, this dispersion is modelled assuming a -0.4 meV/°C dependence of the 11 eV gap energy. We have monitored the 4.3 eV absorption band, with temperature and obtained a thermal dependence of -0.026 meV/°C. With this value we can predict the first and second order chromatic dispersion for a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Authors: Andréy V. Kovalevsky, D.V. Sviridov, Vladislav V. Kharton, E.N. Naumovich, Jorge R. Frade
Abstract: Ceramic anodes, made of perovskite-type rare-earth and strontium cobaltites substituted in both sublattices, exhibit a high electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen evolution in alkaline media. This work analyzes the relationships between cation composition, defect structure, electronic conductivity and electrochemical performance for a wide group of perovskite-like cobaltites, including Ln1-yAyCoO3-δ (Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm; A= Sr, Ca; y= 0-0.4), La1-x-ySrxBiyCoO3-δ (x= 0-0.6, y= 0-0.1), La0.7-xSr0.3CoO3-δ (x= 0-0.10), Sr1-xBaxCoO3-δ (x= 0.1-0.2) and SrCo1-yMyO3-δ (M=Fe, Ni, Ti, Cu; y= 0.1-0.6). The materials were prepared by the standard ceramic technique and characterized employing XRD, TGA, iodometric titration, and total conductivity measurements. A relatively high electrochemical performance in alkaline solutions was observed for (La,Sr)CoO3-based compositions with a moderate A-site deficiency. For SrCoO3-based materials, an increase in the oxygen evolution rate was found when co-substituting cobalt with several transition metal cations, such as Fe3+/4+ and Cu2+/3+. The results show that, in general, the key composition-related factors influencing electrochemical activity in alkaline media include the oxygen vacancy concentration, the average positive charge density in the crystal lattice, and possible blocking of active sites on the electrode surface.
Authors: Mikhail V. Patrakeev, I.A. Leonidov, V.L. Kozhevnikov, Vladislav V. Kharton
Abstract: The total conductivity and oxygen deficiency of partially substituted strontium ferrite, SrFe0.9M0.1O3-δ (M=Cr, Ti, Al), at 700-950°C were measured depending on oxygen partial pressure varying in ranges 10-19-0.5 and 10-5-0.5 atm. The partial contributions of n- and p-type electronic charge carriers and oxygen ions to the electrical transport were determined analyzing the total conductivity vs. oxygen pressure dependencies. Additions of all dopants studied in this work are found to extend the cubic perovskite phase stability range and to improve oxygen transport in the intermediate-temperature range. The behavior of hole mobility suggests a polaron conduction mechanism. Doping with aluminum has a weak influence on the mobility level, while the incorporation of Cr and Ti cations into the ferrite lattice decreases hole mobility up to four times.
Authors: Ivan P. Marozau, Vladislav V. Kharton, Jorge R. Frade, Fernando M.B. Marques
Abstract: Oxygen transport properties of perovskite-type SrCe1-xYxO3-δ (x = 0.05–0.10), exhibiting protonic transport in hydrogen-containing reducing atmospheres and mixed oxygen-ionic and ptype electronic conductivity at oxygen partial pressures close to atmospheric, were studied at 973– 1223 K under oxidizing conditions. The oxygen transference numbers of SrCe(Y)O3-δ in air vary in the range 0.37–0.80, decreasing when temperature increases. The oxygen permeability is significantly affected by the hole conduction, which influences both bulk ambipolar conductivity and surface exchange kinetics. The average thermal expansion coefficients of SrCe1-xYxO3-δ ceramics, calculated from dilatometric data in air, are (11.1–11.3)×10-6 K-1 at 373–1373 K.
Authors: Grzegorz Paściak, Jacek Chmielowiec, Piotr Bujlo
Abstract: Presented work concerns BIVOX based solid electrolytes doped with lanthanum and praseodymium. Investigations of melting point and composition of new materials were performed by use of DTA and X-ray measurements. For determination of conductivity the impedance spectroscopy (IS) method was applied. Measurements were performed in wide range of frequency 20 Hz – 1 MHz and temperature 150 – 750 oC. The electrical measurements allowed evaluation of possible application in SOFC.

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