Aluminium Alloys 2006 - ICAA10

Volumes 519-521

doi: 10.4028/

Paper Title Page

Authors: Alison J. Davenport, Yudie Yuan, Rajan Ambat, Brian J. Connolly, Martin Strangwood, Andreas Afseth, Geoff M. Scamans
Abstract: AA5182 (Al-4.5 wt% Mg) can become susceptible to intergranular corrosion (IGC) with time at moderately elevated service temperatures owing to precipitation of Mg-rich β-phase at grain boundaries, which can lead to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The IGC and SCC susceptibility of AA5182 was found to depend strongly on sensitisation heat treatments. AFM and TEM studies demonstrated that the degree of precipitation and thus susceptibility to attack for a boundary can be related to its crystallographic misorientation. Low angle boundaries (<20°) are most resistant to attack as they do not show β-phase precipitation. However, higher angle boundaries show highly variable precipitation and corrosion susceptibility: critical factors are the grain boundary plane and precipitate/matrix crystallographic relationship.
Authors: Geoff M. Scamans, Andreas Afseth, George E. Thompson, Y. Liu, Xiao Rong Zhou
Abstract: Over the past ten years a detailed understanding of the dominant factors controlling the corrosion susceptibility of painted aluminium alloy sheet used for architectural and automotive applications has been developed. Work carried out in this field will be reviewed and the different modes of cosmetic corrosion that can occur-, the mechanisms of surface activation, and the role of different thermo-mechanical processing steps on controlling corrosion susceptibility for different alloy systems, including Al-Mn, Al-Mg and Al-Mg- Si-(Cu) will be discussed. The critical role of chemical or electro-chemical cleaning prior to pre-treatment and coating will be highlighted and prospects for meaningful accelerated testing will be discussed.
Authors: Silje Rodahl, Kemal Nisancioglu, Ole Øystein Knudsen
Abstract: Applicability of the wedge test and the accompanying fracture mechanical data analysis, commonly used for testing of adhesively bonded joints, was inestigated in an attempt to develop a quantitative laboratory test for evaluating paint adhesion on aluminium. The test was further used, along with a relatively better accepted laboratory test for filiform corrosion of painted aluminium to study the mutual effects of corrosion and adhesion of various pretreatments and paint systems on extruded AA 6082 T6 aluminium alloy. Pretreatments used were commercial processes for deoxidising, chromating, hot AC anodising and Ti/Zr conversion coating. The paints were polyester TGIC and epoxy DICY, both pigmented commercial products. In particular, the compatibility of pretreatment-paint combinations were investigated The wedge test methodology and sample preparation developed proved to be a satisfactory approach for quantitative evaluation of pretreatment-paint combinations for aluminium. Ti/Zr treatment gave exceptionally good adhesion and corrosion results when coated with polyester. Epoxy coated Ti/Zr bars failed completely. However, hot AC anodising, although in general significantly more robust than Ti/Zr, was more compatible with the polyester than polyester coating. With the advent of chromate-free pre-treatments, the need to establish the compatibility of the modified aluminium surface and applied organic coating was demonstrated.
Authors: A.N. Khramov, V.N. Balbyshev, R.A. Mantz
Abstract: Several heterocyclic organic corrosion inhibitors that contain ionazible functional group were encapsulated into nano-structural hybrid organo-silicate coating to improve its corrosion protection performance on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 substrate. When the coating is formed on the substrate surface, it serves simultaneously as protective barrier and as a reservoir for leachable corrosion inhibitor that is stored and released through the mechanism of reversible ionic interaction with the matrix material. The efficiency of active corrosion protection for these coating systems was examined by electrochemical methods including potentiodynamic polarization (PDS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effects of chemical structure and the loading concentration of the inhibitor within the coating were determined.
Authors: Magnus Hurlen Larsen, John Charles Walmsley, Otto Lunder, Kemal Nisancioglu
Abstract: Intergranular corrosion (IGC) of model alloys in the 6000-series, with and without 0.2 wt% Cu, was studied using an accelerated corrosion test (BS ISO 11846 B), FE-SEM and FE-TEM. Low Cu alloys (0.02wt%) did not exhibit IGC even though they contained excess Si. The high-Cu, naturally aged material (T4) was susceptible to severe superficial etching. In the underaged state (below peak strength), the Cu-containing material was highly susceptible to IGC. Materials aged to peak strength (T6) or overaged were only slightly susceptible to IGC, with localized, shallow attacks. FE-TEM investigation of the underaged material revealed scattered, small AlMgSiCu-type precipitates, as well as a Cu-enriched film along the grain boundaries. The overaged material showed more extensive, coarse grain boundary precipitation. However, the Cu-enriched film was still present at localized sites. The reduced susceptibility to IGC upon artificial ageing was attributed to breaking of the continuity of the grain boundary film. The possible role of matrix precipitation is also discussed.
Authors: Brit Graver, Antonius van Helvoort, John Charles Walmsley, Kemal Nisancioglu
Abstract: High temperature heat treatment of aluminium alloys causes surface enrichment of the trace elements in Group IIIA - VA, specifically the low melting point elements Pb, Bi, In and Sn. The phenomenon has practical significance in promoting certain types of localised corrosion, such as galvanic and filiform corrosion, while mitigating other types, such as pitting corrosion of the bare surface. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface enrichment and microstructure of indium relative to the available data for Pb. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20-1000 ppm of In, were used after heat treatment at various temperatures. In addition to electrochemical investigations, the microstructures were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG SEM) and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FEG TEM). Heat treatment at temperatures as low as 300°C gave significant segregation of In as opposed to 600°C for Pb. As a result of this and yet unresolved oxide film breakdown mechanism on aluminium, In was significantly more effective than Pb in anodically activating aluminium. These results suggest the possibility that significant activation earlier observed on certain commercial alloys as a result of low temperature heat treatment may be due to the trace elements In.
Authors: H.N. McMurray, A.J. Coleman, G. Williams, Andreas Afseth, Geoff M. Scamans
Abstract: Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) potentiometry is used to systematically investigate the effect of surface abrasion and subsequent heat-treatment on the open-circuit potential in humid air of the AA6016 surface. SKP is also used to follow the kinetics of filiform corrosion and to determine characteristic potentials associated with the electrolyte-filled filiform head and dry filiform tail. It is shown that simply abrading with 180 grit SiC produces a surface potential up to 0.5V lower than the bulk. When the abraded sample is overcoated with a 30 micron layer of PVB (polyvinyl butyral) and exposed to HCl a fast, superficial filiform corrosion (FFC) is observed in which metal loss is limited to the thickness of the surface layer. Filiform head OCP values are similar to that of the surface layer, whereas filiform tail OCP values are similar to the bulk. A mechanism is proposed in which the ultra-fine grain structure of the surface layer produces an anodic activation and the potential difference between the surface layer and the bulk provides and increased thermodynamic driving force for corrosion. For post-abrasion heat treatment temperatures up to 350°C the fast filiform process is followed by a slower, deeper form of FFC.
Authors: P. Premendra, W. Loven, H. Terryn, J.H.W. de Wit, Laurens Katgerman
Abstract: The presence of a heavily deformed and corrosion susceptible surface/near-surface region on rolled aluminium alloy has been amongst the most important problems which the aluminium manufacturers are dealing with. While primarily the composition of the alloying elements and the thermo-mechanical treatment play an important role in determining surface activation, the importance of several other secondary parameters cannot be ignored. This paper tries to identify the impact of several factors, associated with sheet metal production, on the corrosion behaviour e.g. (a) type of the cast bar fed into the hot rolling mill, whether scalped or not scalped, (b) importance of homogenisation and in-line heat treatment, in relation to pre-existing understanding of surface activation on AA3005, (c) effect of hot and cold rolling (d) effect of surface finish, etc. The alloy under investigation was recycled AA5050, containing high Fe and Si as impurities, and used commercially for architectural purpose, eg. window facades.
Authors: C. Hénon, G. Pouget, Timothy Warner
Abstract: It is generally considered that exfoliation corrosion is due to the build-up of corrosion products that create a wedging stress that lifts up the surface grains. However, the exfoliation mechanism is still under discussion: possible operating mechanisms include intergranular corrosion of in plane grain boundaries accelerated by the wedging effect, or crack propagation by a “purely” stress corrosion mechanism. The sensitivity to exfoliation corrosion of AA7449 in relation to the intergranular and stress corrosion cracking sensitivity has been addressed in a program of controlled quenches followed by thermal treatments. Our observations demonstrate that the quench rate has a strong effect on intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion sensitivity and in a lesser extent on stress corrosion cracking. In the first moments of the EXCO test, the initiation of corrosion follows the same trends as those revealed by the ASTM G110 test. We observe intergranular initiation for the slow quench rate (~5°C/s) and pitting initiation for samples quenched between 50 to 500°C/s. On the contrary, the final EXCO corrosion quotations do not seem to correlate with the intergranular resistance but rather with SCC resistance.

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