Aluminium Alloys 2006 - ICAA10

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Authors: Koji Murakami, Makoto Hino, Minoru Hiramatsu, Kozo Osamura, Teruto Kanadani
Authors: Tadahiro Wada, Junsuke Fujiwara
Abstract: One of the surface modification methods is proposed in this report to improve the wear resistance of light metal such as aluminum alloys. At first alumite layer is formed on the surface of aluminum alloy JIS A6061 which was used as the substrate with anodic oxidation treatment method. Then thin layer of CrN is coated with sputtering method, and diamond like carbon (DLC) layer is finally coated with ion plating method. The influence of the thickness of the alumite layer on wear-resistance is experimentally investigated. The critical load of the coated aluminum alloy in scratch test is measured with the surface property tester, and the wear amount of the coated aluminum alloy is measured with the SUGA abrasion tester. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The critical load of coated aluminum alloy with the alumite layer in the scratch test is higher than that without the alumite layer. (2) The wear amount of the coated aluminum alloy increased with the increase of the thickness of the alumite layer. (3) This combined surface treatment method can become new surface modification method because this method provided excellent adhesive strength and good wear-resistance.
Authors: M. Asano, Tadashi Minoda, Y. Ozeki, Hideo Yoshida
Abstract: The effects of the copper content on the bendability of Al-Mg-Si alloy T4 sheets were investigated. The Al-Mg-Si alloys with less than 0.01mass%Cu, 0.4mass%Cu and 0.8mass%Cu were prepared, and the time of solution heat treatment was changed to obtain different dispersion conditions of the second phase particles and to obtain different shear band formation conditions by bending. For the samples with less than 0.01mass%Cu and 0.4mass%Cu, no cracks were observed during the bending. For the sample with 0.8mass%Cu, the maximum depth of the crack by bending increased with the time of solution heat treatment up to 75 seconds, and then decreased over 75 seconds. The second phase particles decreased by increasing the solution heat treatment time, while the formation of shear bands by bending increased by increasing the solution heat treatment time and the copper content. The cause of the occurrence and the propagation of cracks by bending are considered to be the combined effect of the shear band formation across some grains and the micro-voids formed around the second phase particles. Improving of the bendability requires a decrease in the size and number of the second phase particles and/or reduced shear band formation during the bending.
Authors: Shigeo Saimoto, S. Subbaiyan, C. Gabryel
Abstract: In dynamic dislocation-defect analysis, the thermodynamic deformation-mode signatures are examined as the ageing proceeds. In this method, the activation volume (ν) and the mean slip distance (λ) is simultaneously determined with the flow stress (τ) such that the inverse workhardening slope (1/θ) can be plotted versus b2λ/ν where b is the Burgers vector. The slope of this almost linear locus is directly proportional to the activation distance (d). Calibration with a model alumina-dispersed high conductivity copper reveals that punched-out loops are produced up to failure and is represented by a linear locus from 0.1 to 11 % strain. Artificial ageing of AA6111 at 180°C follows this pattern but the naturally-aged specimen manifest a distinctly different signature which shows a transition as the GP zone-type precipitates are sheared. Furthermore by selecting a suitable tensile-test temperature below 250K, the particle size and volume fraction can be determined if particle shearing does not take place. The optimum size and volume fraction necessary for sufficient strength and ductility can be assessed using this method.
Authors: A. Bacha, Claire Maurice, Helmut Klocker, Julian H. Driver
Abstract: Two recent methods for obtaining flow stress-strain relations up to large strains of order 1.5 by channel-die compression are presented: i) for sheet metal formability tests, composite samples have been made of glued sheet layers and deformed at room temperature in a channel-die with the compression axis directed along one of the sheet metal edge directions, i.e. RD or TD. The sheet plane is parallel to the lateral compression die face. It is shown that, using a suitable lubricant, the sample deformation is homogeneous up to strains of 1.5. Tests carried out on 5xxx and 6xxx alloys to evaluate the stress-strain relations show that a generalized Voce law gives a good quantitative fit for the data. ii) for high temperature plate processing, quantitative flow stress data can be obtained up to 500°C with a rapid quench using a hot channel-die set-up. Some new results are presented here for high strain hot PSC tests on Al-Mn and Al-Mg alloys together with microstructure analyses.
Authors: X.B. Wang
Abstract: Gradient-dependent plasticity where a characteristic length is involved to consider the microstructural effect (interactions and interplaying among microstructures due to the heterogeneous texture) is introduced into Zerilli-Armstrong model based on the framework of thermally activated dislocation motion. Effect of initial temperature on the distributions of plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band (ASB), the axial compressive stress-axial compressive strain curve, the shear stress-average plastic shear strain in ASB curve and the plastic shear strain corresponding to the occurrence of shear strain localization is investigated. The axial deformation within aluminum-lithium alloy specimen in uniaxial compression in strain-hardening stage is considered to be uniform. Beyond the peak compressive stress, a single ASB with a certain thickness determined by internal length is formed and intersects the specimen. The axial plastic deformation is decomposed into uniform deformation and localized deformation due to the shear slip along ASB. Lower temperature leads to earlier occurrence of shear strain localization, i.e., lower critical plastic compressive strain, steeper post-peak shear stress-average plastic shear strain in ASB curve, higher peak shear stress and more apparent shear strain localization. The calculated distributions of plastic shear strain and deformation in ASB are highly nonuniform due to the microstructural effect, as cannot be predicted by classical elastoplastic theory applicable to completely homogenous material. The predicted average plastic shear strains in ASB for different widths of ASB agree with the measured values for under-aged Al-Li alloy at 298K and at strain rate of approximately 103s-1.
Authors: Dominique Daniel, Gilles Guiglionda, Pierre Litalien, Ravi Shahani
Abstract: Cost-efficient designs of aluminum autobody structures consist mainly of stampings using conventional technology. Progress in metallurgy and forming processes has enabled aluminum body panels to achieve significant market share, particularly for hoods. Fast bake hardening alloys with better hemming performance were developed for improved outer panel sheet products. Specific guidelines for handling and press working were established to form aluminum panels using similar schedules and production lines as steel parts. Stamping productivity was improved by optimization of the trimming process to reduce sliver/particle generation and resulting end-of-line manual rework. Both hemming formability and trimming quality not only depend on tooling setup but also on microstructural features, which govern intrinsic alloy ductility. Targets for the next high volume aluminum car body applications, such as roof panels and doors, require higher strength and/or better formability. The challenges of complex stampings can be met with optimized alloys and lubricants, with improved numerical simulation to fine-tune stamping process parameters, and with the introduction of new technologies. Warm forming was examined as a potential breakthrough technology for high volume stamping of complex geometries.
Authors: Franz Roters
Abstract: The crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM) is probably the method with the best potential to directly incorporate crystal anisotropy and its evolution into forming simulations. However, when it comes to the simulation of bulk materials, the representation of the crystal orientation distribution function (ODF), i.e. of the statistical texture, within the CPFEM framework becomes a key issue for the efficiency of the approach. In this work two different approaches for sampling the ODF are compared. The first is the so called Texture-Component-CPFEM, where the discretisation is based on the representation of the ODF by texture components. The second approach is based on the representation of the ODF by series expansion and uses a direct mapping of the ODF represented in the form of C-coefficients to individual orientations as needed by the CPFEM. Both methods are compared using the textures of Aluminum hot band as well as cold rolled material.
Authors: Hans Bjerkaas, Snorre Kjørstad Fjeldbo, Hans Jørgen Roven, Jarle Hjelen, Rémi Chiron, Trond Furu
Abstract: The crystallographic slip activity in several grains deformed by simple tension is determined by use of in-situ deformation in combination with Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD)-investigations and Secondary Electron (SE) imaging. This technique is also used to determine grain lattice rotation paths of grains with different initial orientation, providing information on basic deformation mechanisms of grains present in texture gradients. Both slip activity and grain lattice rotation paths depend on the initial orientation and are influenced by the neighbouring grain orientations. This indicates that predictions of the forming behaviour of extruded profiles with a strong through thickness texture gradient relate to a very complex nature.
Authors: Zeng Tao Chen, Michael J. Worswick, David J. Lloyd
Abstract: The numerical simulation of the stretch flange forming operation of Al-Mg sheet AA5182 was conducted with an explicit finite element code, LS-DYNA. A Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman (GTN)-based material model was used in the finite element calculation. A strain controlled void nucleation rule was adopted with void nucleating particle fraction measured directly from the as-received Al-Mg sheet. Parametric study was performed to examine the effect of void nucleation strain on the predicted onset of ductile fracture. Critical porosity levels determined through quantitative metallurgical analysis were adopted to predict the commencement of void coalescence in the GTN model. The numerical results were compared to the experimental ones and an applicable void nucleation strain was suggested.

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