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Authors: Toshiro Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Toda
Abstract: Synchrotron X-ray microtomography has been utilized for the 3D characterisation of microstructure of aluminium foams. A combination of phase contrast imaging technique and several application techniques, such as local area tomography, microstructural gauging and in-situ observation, has enabled the assessment of microstructural effects on compressive deformation behaviours. It has been clarified that ductile buckling of a cell wall occurs regardless of any of the above microstructural factors in the case of a pure aluminium foam, while rather brittle fracture of a cell wall is induced by the existence of coarse micro-pores independently of the intermetallic particles and the grain boundary in the case of Al-Zn-Mg alloy foams. When cooling rate during foaming is high, however, lower energy absorption might be attributable to the significant amount of residual foaming agent particle and its inhomogeneous distribution. These tendencies are also confirmed by 3D strain mapping by tracking internal microstructural features.
Authors: Jin Kook Yoon, Dong Wha Kum, Kyung Tae Hong
Abstract: The microstructure and oxidation resistance of MSi2-SiC or MSi2-Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings (M = Mo, W, Nb, Ta) on M substrates formed by displacement reactions between M-carbides or M–nitrides and silicon, respectively, was investigated. Present study demonstrated that the crack density formed in the MSi2-base nanocomposite coatings due to mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion between nanocomposite coatings and M substrates could be controlled by adjusting the volume fraction of the SiC or Si3N4 reinforcing particles with the low CTE values. The high- and low-temperature oxidation resistance of nanocomposite coatings was superior to that of monolithic MSi2 coatings.
Authors: Cheng Xu, Megumi Kawasaki, Minoru Furukawa, Z. Horita, Terence G. Langdon
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of a spray-cast Al- 7034 alloy processed by severe plastic deformation. The alloy was received with an average grain size of ~2.1 μm and processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a temperature of 473 K to give a grain size of ~0.3 μm after 6 or 8 passes. Following ECAP, the mechanical properties were evaluated at room temperature (298 K) and at an elevated temperature of 673 K. In tensile testing at ambient temperature, the stress-strain curves show very short regions of strain hardening after ECAP and low values for the ultimate tensile strength by comparison with the unpressed alloy. This lack of strength is due to the high pressures imposed by ECAP and the consequent fragmentation and dissolution of the rod-like MgZn2 precipitates. It is shown that the strength may be restored by performing an appropriate ageing treatment after ECAP. Superplastic ductilities were recorded at a temperature of 673 K with tensile elongations exceeding 1000%. Careful inspection of the polished surfaces of samples pulled to fracture in the superplastic condition revealed the occurrence of extensive internal cavitation. Quantitative measurements showed the development of these internal cavities is consistent with conventional superplastic alloys.
Authors: Dong Nyung Lee
Abstract: Park et al. measured the deposition and annealing textures of nanocrystalline Ni and Ni- 20 % Fe electrodeposits. They found that the deposition texture of major <100> + minor <111> changed to the texture characterized by major <111> + minor <100> after annealing. They also found that the lattice constants of the <100> oriented grains in the as-deposited state were larger than those of <111> oriented grains. In this paper, a model has been advanced to explain the unusual results of lattice constants, and the texture transition has been discussed.
Authors: Tadashi Furuhara, Takuto Yamaguchi, Shoji Furimoto, Tadashi Maki
Abstract: The microstructure change by warm deformation in high-carbon steels with different initial ferrite (α) + cementite (θ) duplex microstructures has been examined. Three kinds of initial structures, i.e., pearlite, α+spheroidized θ and tempered martensite, were prepared using Fe-0.8C-2Mn and Fe-1.0C-1.4Cr alloys and compressed by 30-75% at 973K at a strain rate of 5x10-4 s-1. Equiaxed fine α grains, approximately 2μm in diameter and mostly bounded by high-angle boundaries, are formed with spheroidized θ by dynamic recrystallization during compression of the pearlite by 75%. When the (α+θ) duplex structure containing spheroidized θ was deformed, the original α grains become elongated and only subgrains are formed within them by dynamic recovery. For the tempered martensite, equiaxed α grains similar to those in the deformed pearlite were obtained after 50% compression. This indicates that the critical strain needed for the completion of dynamic recrystallization of α is smaller for the tempered martensite than for the other structures.
Authors: Sonia Tremblay, A. El Maliki, Michel Fiset, D. Mantovani
Abstract: In the last years a new clinical method to carry out surgical operations has been introduced. It consists in minimally invasive vascular surgery (also called laparoscopy). In one hand, during laparoscopy procedures, sutures cannot be handled with fingers, and the use of stainless-steel needle holders is required. In the other hand, companies that fabricate sutures clearly mention that metal-made devices should be avoided when manipulating the monofilaments. Therefore, the manipulation of the suture monofilaments (made of polymers) by laparoscopic needle holders (made of metals) is controversial. Literature in this field is limited and incomplete. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical and microstructural effects of the manipulations with laparoscopic needle holder on polymeric suture monofilament. Surgipro© (polypropylene), Teflene© (polyvinylidene fluoride) and Gore-Tex© (polytetrafluoroethylene) monofilament suture were pinched with a standard clinical protocol by a surgeon. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-mechanical testing, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, small angle x-ray scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were then performed. Results showed that the ultimate tensile strength of Teflene and Gore-Tex sutures does not change after pinching whereas it decreases significantly for Surgipro sutures. This is attributed to stress concentration and to the compressive strength applied on the monofilament, which are closely related to the permanent deformation of the suture after pinching. Teflene and Gore-Tex monofilament sutures showed to be not affected even after severe pinching with laparoscopic needle holders. Therefore, our results clearly showed that the use of Surgipro II sutures in laparoscopic interventions should be avoided.
Authors: Håkon Hallem, Børge Forbord, Knut Marthinsen
Abstract: In the present work the precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance of Alalloys containing Hf, Sc and Zr in different concentrations and combinations have been investigated. Special focus has been put on the Hf-containing alloys, as one of the objectives of this work was to find out if Hf can be used as a replacement for Sc. Additions of Sc, either alone or in combination with Zr, leads to the formation of coherent and homogeneously distributed dispersoids, which very efficiently inhibit recrystallisation. Despite these attractive properties, the high price of Sc has limited its use as an alloying element in aluminium. The present investigation has revealed that Hf cannot fully replace Sc, as only heterogeneous dispersoid distributions are obtained in the absence of Sc, i.e. in regions where the number density is low the alloys would still be prone to recrystallisation. However, as an extra addition to the already remarkably stable Sc+Zr-containing alloys, Hf can lead to further improvements and consequently open for the use of aluminium alloys at very high temperatures. Al3(Sc,Zr,Hf)-dispersoids were present at the largest f/r-ratios and also displayed lower coarsening rates than Al3(Sc,Zr)-dispersoids. Very promising results were obtained for an Al-Hf-Sc-Zr alloy, which maintained mainly an unrecrystallised structure after extrusion and large degrees of cold rolling.
Authors: In Wook Park, Brajendra Mishra, Kwang Ho Kim, John J. Moore
Abstract: Ti–B–C–N and Ti–Si–B–C–N nanocomposite coatings were deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering from two (80mol% TiB2–20mol% TiC and 40mol% TiB2–60mol% TiC) composite targets in various Si target powers. The relationship among microstructures, mechanical properties, and tribologiacal properties was investigated. The synthesized Ti–B–C–N and Ti–Si–B–C–N coatings were characterized using x–ray diffraction (XRD) and x–ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These analyses revealed that the Ti–Si–B–C–N coatings are nanocomposites consisting of solid-solution (Ti,C,N)B2 and Ti(C,N) crystallites distributed in an amorphous TiSi2, SiC, and SiB4 matrix including some carbon, BN, CNx, TiO2, and B2O3 components. The addition of Si to the Ti–B–C–N coating led to percolation of amorphous TiSi2, SiC, and SiB4 phases. The Ti–Si–B–C–N coatings exhibited high hardness and H/E values, indicating high fracture toughness, of approximately 35 GPa and 0.098, respectively. Furthermore, the Ti–Si–B–C–N coatings exhibited very low wear rates ranging from ~3×10-7 to ~16×10-7 mm3/(N·m). The minimum friction coefficient of the Ti–Si–B–C–N coatings was approximately 0.15 at low Si target power between 25W and 50W. A systematic investigation on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and tribological properties of Ti–Si–B–C–N coatings prepared from two TiB2–TiC composite targets and one Si target is reported in this paper.
Authors: Hidekazu Murakawa
Abstract: The distortion and the residual stress are the inevitable consequences of the welding and these may reduce the strength and the quality of the welded structures. To prevent the harmful influence of the welding distortion and the residual stress, their theoretical prediction is necessary. However the existing methods are mostly developed for the study of specimens in laboratories. Compared to the specimens, the structures manufactured in the industry are larger in size and more complex in geometry. For the theoretical prediction applicable to industrial structures, more powerful and practical methods are necessary. To achieve this goal, the authors developed a fast computational method for thermal elastic plastic analysis and an elastic finite element method using inherent deformation.
Authors: Hideo Nakajima, Soong Keun Hyun, J.S. Park, Masakazu Tane
Abstract: Lotus-type porous metals with low thermal conductivity are fabricated by continuous zone melting technique, which possess directional elongated pores. The porous metals have been able to be fabricated through the conventional casting method by utilizing the solubility gap between solid and liquid in pressurized gas atmosphere. However, there is a shortcoming that the pores are coarsened in the part farther from the chill plate in the ingot. In order to overcome such a shortcoming, we developed the continuous zone melting technique and successfully produced the lotus-type porous metals with even low thermal conductivity such as stainless steel and superalloys. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of mass production with low cost, we invented novel ”continuous casting technique”. The molten metals dissolving gas are solidified continuously by passing through the mold cooled with chiller and thus, lotus-type porous metal plate as long as one meter was produced for short time. Sufficient uniformity of the porosity and pore size was obtained in such long porous ingots. This technique is prospective method for commercial mass production.

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