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Authors: Claire Daniel, Frédéric Christien, René Le Gall
Abstract: It was previously reported that fatigue life of some alloys can be dramatically reduced if the grain boundaries contain a high level of impurity segregation before fatigue tests. In this paper the susceptibility of single phase brass samples (90Cu10Zn) to this form of damage is studied. After cold drawing of as cast brass bars, fatigue samples were heat treated at 800°C during 30min to promote recrystallization and impurity segregation at grain boundary. The samples were then tested under high frequency bending fatigue test at 200°C. After cracking, fracture surfaces were studied using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The SEM micrographs showed that the fractures were mostly intergranular. Chemical composition of intergranular cracks surface were analyzed using EPMA at low accelerating voltage. A high concentration of sulfur was found on most of grain boundary facets. The internal stress in alloys after fatigue was qualitatively estimated using electron backscattering diffraction in scanning electron microscopy. A high level of local misorientation was found near most grain boundaries. The mechanism of intergranular cracks formation during fatigue is discussed taking into account both the segregation of sulfur at grain boundaries and accumulation of plastic strain at grain boundaries
Authors: Hisashi Serizawa, Charles Lewinsohn, Mrityunjay Singh, Hidekazu Murakawa
Abstract: As examples of the most typical methods to determine the shear strength of SiC/SiC composite joints, the asymmetrical four point bending test of butt joined composite, the tensile test of lap joined composite and the compressive test of double-notched composite joint were analyzed by using finite element method with the interface element. From the calculation results, it was found that the shear strength in the asymmetrical bending test was controlled by both the surface energy and the shear strength at the interface regardless of their combination although the strength in the tensile test or the compressive test was governed by the surface energy when the shear strength was large. Also, it was revealed that the apparent shear strength of the composite joint obtained experimentally might be affected by the combination of the surface energy and the shear strength at the interface.
Authors: Shusaku Takagi, Satoshi Terasaki, Kaneaki Tsuzaki, Tadanobu Inoue, Fumiyoshi Minami
Abstract: A new method for evaluating the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of ultra high strength steel was studied in order to propose a new method for assessing the delayed fracture property. The material used was 1400MPa tempered martensitic steel with the chemical composition 0.40C-0.24Si-0.81Mn-1.03Cr-0.16Mo(mass%). The local approach originally used for evaluating the brittle fracture property was applied to HE susceptibility assessment after modifying the method to include the effect of hydrogen content. Critical HE data used in the modified local approach was obtained by a stepwise test in which alternating processes of stress increase and stress holding were repeated until the specimen fractured. The specimen used in the stepwise test was 10 mm in diameter and the stress concentration factor was 4.9. Assessment of HE susceptibility for specimens with other dimensions entailed the use of a critical hydrogen content for failure, Hc, representing the maximum hydrogen content among the unfractured specimens in the HE test with constant loading. Matters to be noted for obtaining the material parameters are discussed.
Authors: P.A. Manohar
Abstract: Several prematurely failed jack bolts were analyzed to determine the root causes of failure. Bolts were employed to ensure that die halves do not separate during casting of high pressure die castings of light metals. Fractography of jack bolts revealed unusual morphology consisting of both circumferential and longitudinal cracking. The basic fracture type was identified as transgranular cleavage (brittle) fracture mode. SEM / EDS analysis of the fracture surface revealed the presence of, to varying degrees, chemical species containing sulfur (S), oxygen (O) and chlorine (Cl). Material composition, heat treatment, microstructure and hardnesses of the jack bolts were found to be in agreement with the expected steel grade and properties. It was concluded that the failure of the bolts was due to a combination of inappropriately chosen mechanical properties of the bolts, operating stress, and the presence of corrosive environmental materials leading to ideal conditions that promoted stress corrosion cracking failures. Suitable remedial actions to alleviate the risk of SCC failure of the bolts are presented and discussed in the paper.
Authors: Mitsuru Ohata, Anna Ui, Fumiyoshi Minami
Authors: Hiroshi Shimanuki, Fumiyoshi Minami, Mitsuru Ohata
Authors: Yoichi Kayamori, S. Hillmansen, P.S.J. Crofton, Roderick A. Smith
Abstract: Static and dynamic ductile crack propagation tests were carried out using thin single edge notched tension (SENT) specimens of carbon-manganese steel, each of which had a fatigue pre-crack or a sharp V-notch as a crack initiator. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) was measured using digital images on the surface of the SENT specimens, and the critical values of CTOA for crack propagation decreased with increasing crack length while initial crack growth was still small. After the initial crack growth up to the distance of the specimen thickness, the critical CTOA remained almost constant. These tendencies were common in static and dynamic crack propagation specimens as well as fatigue pre-cracked and sharp V-notched specimens. There was no particular difference in the static crack propagation characteristics of both fatigue pre-cracked and sharp V-notched specimens. On average, it was observed that higher crack speeds affected the constant values of the critical CTOA by slightly reducing them. The constant CTOA tends to decrease with an increasing global constraint factor, and this suggests that the factor is insensitive to a crack starter, fatigue pre-crack or a sharp V-notch, but relatively sensitive to crack speed.
Authors: Mitsuru Ohata, Takuya Fukahori, Fumiyoshi Minami
Abstract: This study pays attention to reveal the material properties that control resistance curve for ductile crack growth (CTOD-R curve) on the basis of the mechanism for ductile crack growth, so that the R-curve could be numerically predicted only from those properties. The crack growth tests using 3-point bend specimens with fatigue pre-crack were conducted for two steels that have different ductile crack growth resistance with almost the same CTOD level for crack initiation, whereas both steels have the same “Mechanical properties” in terms of strength and work hardenability. The observation of crack growth behaviors provided that different mechanisms between ductile crack initiations from fatigue pre-crack and subsequent growth process could be applied. It was found that two “Mechanical properties” associated with ductile damage of steel could mainly influence CTOD-R curve; one is a resistance of ductile crack initiation estimated with critical local strain for ductile cracking from the surface of notched specimen, and the other one is a dependence of stress triaxiality on ductility obtained with circumferentially notched round-bar specimens. The damage model for numerically simulating the R-curve was proposed taking the two “ductile properties” into account, where ductile crack initiation from crack-tip was in accordance with critical local strain based criterion, and subsequent crack growth GTN (Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) based triaxiality dependent damage criterion. The proposed model accurately predicted the measured R-curve for the two steels used with the same “strength properties” through ductile crack initiation to growth.
Authors: Shigeo Saimoto
Abstract: Measurements of the activation volume and mean slip distance were used in the dynamic dislocation-defect analysis to reveal the dislocation-obstacle evolution with strain. Due to the large effect of point defect mobility above 250 K on the strain rate sensitivity, fine-grained Al specimens with the grain-boundaries sealed and unsealed as vacancy sinks were tested at 300 K as the reference behaviour. The activation distance diagrams revealed that the artificially aged products in AA6111 and naturally aged extruded AA6063 can be used to examine the effect of chopping-up of particles on the ductility of the samples. Thus a means to examine strength-structure-ductility of specific products have been devised.

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