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Authors: Kshudiram Mantri, Ryo Nakamura, Yasuyuki Miyata, Kenichi Komura, Yoshihiro Sugi
Abstract: Some typical multi-valent metal salt hydrates, such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and acetate of Fe3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, ZrO2+, HfO2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn3+, Cr3+, and Cu2+ have catalytic activities for the esterification of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and alcohols. Supporting these metal salt hydrates on ordered mesoporous silica such as MCM-41 enhanced the catalytic activity of the esterification. The esters of C10-C18 normal acid and alcohol were obtained in high yield by some of supported metal salt hydrates on MCM-41; however, the yield of the esters decreased with their chain length of acids and alcohols although the activities depended on type of metal salt hydrates. The catalyst is recyclable although some loss of activity was observed.
Authors: Yuji Haga, Pusparatu, Kiyotada Aoyama, Kenichi Komura, Yoichi Nishimura, Yoshihiro Sugi, Jong Ho Kim, Gon Seo
Authors: Yoshikazu Shinohara, Yoshio Imai, Yukihiro Isoda, Kentaro Hiraishi, Hachiro Nakanishi
Abstract: Typical conductive polymers of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) were synthesized by oxidative polymerization. Polythiophene with no side chain was also electrolyticaly polymerized. Alkyl side chains were CnH2n+1 with n=4, 6, 8, 12. The regioregularity with the HT linkage was larger than 99% based on NMR analysis. We have evaluated the effect of side chain size on the thermoelectric properties of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. The results were as follows: 1) Seebeck coefficient decreased with an increasing electrical conductivity. 2) High Seebeck coefficient >1mV/K was observed at low electrical conductivity <10-2S/cm. 3) Small side chains, especially no side chain caused higher thermoelectric properties of polythiophene series.
Authors: Kazumi Minagawa, Hideki Kakisawa, Susumu Takamori, Yoshiaki Osawa, Kohmei Halada
Authors: Toshio Fukushima
Abstract: Ecomaterial-type building materials are classified based upon 6 row×8 column eco-life-cycle matrix table combining 8 life-cycle stages of resources gathering, transportation, production, assembly/construction, in-service/maintenance and modernization, demolition, recycle/reuse/reproduction, and reduce/final waste with six eco-balance evaluation items of long service life, resources circulation, reduction of harmful substances, resources and environmental capacities, materials efficiency ,and health safety. Evaluation indicators other than life cycle inventory (LCI) are shown as methods of ecobalance performance. In each life stage, each ecomaterial is evaluated as radar chart by 5 step indices by six eco-balance evaluation item (multi eco-indicators).
Authors: Yoshiaki Osawa, Susumu Takamori, Kazumi Minagawa, Hideki Kakisawa, Kohmei Halada
Authors: Ulrich Lienert, Jonathan Almer, Bo Jakobsen, Wolfgang Pantleon, Henning Friis Poulsen, D. Hennessy, C. Xiao, R.M. Suter
Abstract: The implementation of 3-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) Microscopy at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The technique enables the non-destructive structural characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials and is therefore suitable for in situ studies during thermo-mechanical processing. High energy synchrotron radiation and area detectors are employed. First, a forward modeling approach for the reconstruction of grain boundaries from high resolution diffraction images is described. Second, a high resolution reciprocal space mapping technique of individual grains is presented.
Authors: Fumihiro Wakai
Abstract: The interparticle mass transport causes the larger particles to grow at the expense of the smaller particles in the process of sintering. Coarsening during sintering results from surface motion, while grain growth results from grain boundary motion. The three-dimensional simulation was performed to study coarsening and grain growth during sintering by using the Surface Evolver program. The coarsening and grain growth were affected by the ratio of grain boundary energy to surface energy, the ratio of grain boundary mobility to surface mobility, the size of a particle, and its coordination number.
Authors: Marco J. Starink
Abstract: To predict strength evolution of precipitation hardening alloys, a wide range of modelling approaches have been proposed. The most accurate published models are physics-based approaches which use both nanoscale processes with their related constants and parameters, as well as parameters calibrated to one or more macroscale measurements of yield strength of one or more samples. Recent developments in submodels including analytical expressions for volume fraction and size evolution including impingement and coarsening are reviewed. It is also shown that Kampmann-Wagner and JMAK models are generally not consistent with data on the progress of precipitations in the main precipitation hardening Al alloys systems, and improved model formulations are described.
Authors: Sadahiro Tsurekawa, Shinya Nakamichi, Tadao Watanabe
Abstract: Grain boundary engineering through the control of grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) has been extensively employed as a powerful tool for achieving enhanced properties and for development of high performance both structural and functional polycrystalline materials. Many efforts were made firstly to increase the frequency of low-energy CSL boundaries of polycrystalline materials in grain boundary engineering. However, the connectivity of grain boundaries can be an important microstructural parameter governing bulk properties of polycrystalline materials as well as the GBCD. In the present work, the connectivity of random grain boundaries was quantitatively evaluated using both the triple junction distribution and random boundary cluster length on the basis of SEM-EBSD/OIM observations, and then these evaluated parameters were linked to intergranular corrosion of SUS304 stainless steel. We have found that the length of the maximum random boundary cluster drastically decrease with increasing CSL boundaries in the fraction ranging 60 – 80% CSL boundaries, which leads to percolation threshold occurring at approximately 70±5% CSL boundary fraction (at 30±5% random boundary fraction). The experimentally observed percolation threshold is much higher than theoretically obtained one based on randomly assembled network (at 35% resistant bonds for a 2D hexagonal lattice). In addition, the fraction of resistant triple junctions is found to increase with increasing the the CSL boundary fraction. An increase in the frequency of resistant triple junctions can enhance intergranular corrosion resistance of polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel even if the GBCD is the same.

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