Solid State Phenomena
This collection presents, and analyses, the new ideas in the emerging technologies involved in the production and use of particle beams and plasmas.
Natural, as well as man-made, materials are often assumed to behave uniformly, exhibiting equal strength in all directions, because most of them have a polycrystalline structure. The anisotropy of the individual crystals, however, is smoothed out only in the presence of a large number of grains having a random distribution of orientations. In reality, there usually remains an anisotropy due to the existence of preferred orientations. Its magnitude depends upon the statistical distribution of grain orientations – the "crystallographic texture" or, more simply, the texture. –This governs the extremes, of the physical property of interest, which a single crystal of the material under consideration can exhibit in directional tests. Local variations in texture, as well as the arrangements and types of grain/phase boundaries, may give rise to inhomogeneous material properties. The texture also carries with it information on the history of a material’s processing, use and misuse. A knowledge of the texture is a prerequisite for all quantitative techniques of materials characterization, and is based upon the interpretation of diffraction-peak intensities. It is also necessary to model the relationships between microstructural features and physical or mechanical properties. Therefore, the texture is of great value for quality control in a wide range of industrial applications, and in basic materials research.
This book is sub-divided into 10 different topical sections; each dealing with important issues in surface cleaning and preparation.
In recent years, bulk and graded nanometals have attracted the growing interest of materials scientists. Nanometals can be obtained by using various methods: gas condensation or ball-milling with subsequent consolidation, thermal spray techniques, annealing of thin amorphous ribbons and severe plastic deformation. The plastic deformation methods include severe torsional straining under high pressures, equal channel angular pressing, cyclic extrusion compression - and others.
Research and development in the field of nanomaterials - thin films, nanowires, nanocrystals and nanostructured bulk materials - has increased very rapidly during recent years. Especially significant has been research in which the structure is closely controlled at the nanometer level in order to achieve the desired functional properties.
Important discoveries have been made, including quantum dots, confinement effects and super-emission, and the prospects for rapid development in these areas are very promising. The results of much of the basic research have been the basis of an astonishing rate of progress in microelectronics. It is therefore expected that the study and development of nanomaterials will provide a firm foundation for a major increase in the number of advanced technologies and for the development of new optoelectronics and photonic devices.
This volume comprises the proceedings of the 6th international conference on Self-Formation Theory and Applications.
This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 10th International Autumn Meeting on "Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology - GADEST 2003," which took place from the 21st to the 26th of September 2003 at the Seehotel Zeuthen, in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. The Seehotel Zeuthen, near Berlin, was an excellent location at which to provide a forum for interactions between scientists and engineers engaged in the field of semiconductor defect physics, materials science and technology; and to reflect upon aspects of the coming era of conversion from micro-electronics to nano-electronics. In addition, a particular ambition was to strengthen the interactions and exchanges between communities working in the fields of crystalline silicon for electronics and photovoltaics.
The aim of this book is to review recent progress in the understanding of the new properties, or unusual combinations of properties, possessed by nanostructured materials; with particular emphasis being placed on interfacial effects.
This book comprises the over 100 contributions that were presented at the International Conference on Polycrystalline Semiconductors which took place from September 10 to 13, 2002, in Nara, Japan.