Soldering and Brazing Metals to Ceramics at Room Temperature Using a Novel Nanotechnology
This paper reviews a new, low-temperature process for soldering and brazing ceramics to metals that is based on the use of reactive multilayer foils as a local heat source. The reactive foils range in thickness from 40μm to 100μm and contain many nanoscale layers that alternate between materials with large heats of mixing, such as Al and Ni. By inserting a free-standing foil between two solder (or braze) layers and two components, heat generated by the reaction of the foil melts the solder (or braze) and consequently bonds the components. The use of reactive foils eliminates the need for a furnace, and dramatically reduces the heating of the components being bonded. Thus ceramics and metals can be joined over large areas without the damaging thermal stresses that are typically encountered when cooling in furnace soldering or brazing operations. This paper draws on earlier work to review the bonding process and its application to a variety of ceramic-metal systems. Predictions of thermal profiles during bonding and the resulting residual stresses are described and compared with results for conventional soldering or brazing processes. The microstructure, uniformity, and physical properties of the reactive foil bonds are reviewed as well, using several different ceramic-metal systems as examples.
A. Duckham et al., "Soldering and Brazing Metals to Ceramics at Room Temperature Using a Novel Nanotechnology", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 45, pp. 1578-1587, 2006