Abstract: Redundant images currently abundant in World Wide Web pages need to be removed in order to transform or simplify the Web pages for suitable display in small-screened devices. Classifying removable images on the Web pages according to their uniqueness of content will allow simpler representation of Web pages. For such classification, machine learning based methods can be used to categorize images into two groups; eliminable and non-eliminable. We use two representative learning methods, the Naïve Bayesian classifier and C4.5 decision trees. For our Web image classification, we propose new features that have expressive power for Web images to be classified. We apply image samples to the two classifiers and analyze the results. In addition, we propose an algorithm to construct an optimized subset from a whole feature set, which includes most influential features for the purposes of classification. By using the optimized feature set, the accuracy of classification is found to improve markedly.
Abstract: The MPEG-7 standard defines a set of descriptors that extract low-level features such as color, texture and object shape from an image and generate metadata that represents the extracted information. In this paper we propose a new image retrieval technique for image indexing based on the MPEG-7 scalable color descriptor. We use some specifications of the scalable color descriptor (SCD) for the implementation of the color histograms. The MPEG-7 standard defines 1 l norm − based matching in the SCD. But in our approach, for distance measurement, we achieve a better result by using cosine similarity coefficient for color histograms. This approach has significantly increased the accuracy of obtaining results for image retrieval. Experiments based on scalable color descriptors are illustrated. We also present the color spaces supported by the different image and video coding
standards such as JPEG-2000, MPEG-1, 2, 4 and MPEG-7. In addition, this paper outlines the broad details of MPEG-7 Color Descriptors.
Abstract: This study demonstrates the measurement and analysis of interfacial reactions of metal ions with organic ligands using the time-resolved SPR instrument. For the substrate, an HDT (1,6-hexanedithiol) ligand was immobilized on a gold thin film using the SAM method. The 50-nm-thick gold thin film was fabricated by thermal evaporation. The target metal ions were Pt ions in an aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics of metal ions to HDT ligands was obtained.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of the on-line teaching
materials on the websites of natural history museums particularly with regards to their educational perspectives, focusing on the nature of science. A total of twelve on-line resources from the four well established museums used in this study were selected as representative informal science teaching materials. The analyses highlighted the potential of natural history museums as an informal science learning venues.
Abstract: Inductance is an important parameter to assess electric motor characteristics. In this paper, the methods of apparent and incremental inductance calculations are introduced for a transverse flux linear motor (TFLM), which has a peculiar coil shape. To consider the nonlinearity of magnetic material, nonlinear analysis is performed by 3-dimensional equivalent magnetic circuit network (3D EMCN). The calculation method is verified by test results.
Abstract: Electroplating using a Ni-plating solution/CO2 macroemulsion was carried out at a
supercritical condition. This method is that the Ni+2 ions in the macroemulsion using a surfactant have been deposited onto Cu. For forming the macroemulsion, we synthesized the fluorocarbonhydrocarbon surfactants, that is, sodium salt of bis (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentanol) sulfosuccinate with both ‘CO2 philic’ chains and the ‘hydrophilic' head group. The Cu plate, screw and chip as complicated shaped metals were plated by using this method. And the plated ware
performed by this method was compared with that performed by the conventional method (electroplating at 1atm) to evaluate the effectiveness of the effective plating process.
Abstract: Using gas chromatographic analyses, the effects of additives (PdCl2, Al2O3, or La2O3) on the alcohol sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors were investigated with respect to the distribution and the reaction steps of the products formed from the reactions of alcohols over the SnO2-based powder. Ethanol was catalytically oxidized with the SnO2-based powders. With the PdCl2-doped SnO2, the C–C bond cleavage product, methane, was produced. This seems to be related
with the significant promotional role of PdCl2-doping in ethanol sensing especially at temperatures below 300 oC. For the La2O3-doped SnO2, relatively large amounts of CO and CO2 were produced, resulting in an enhanced sensitivity. On the other hand, for the Al2O3-doped SnO2, selective dehydration, which consumes smaller amounts of the adsorbed oxygen species (O- ads), seems to degrade the sensitivity. When exposed to methanol, the SnO2-based sensors showed oxidation
products consisting of CO, CO2 and H2O and sensing characteristics similar to those observed with ethanol.
Abstract: A piston core DGKS9617, recovered from the northern part of the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) is divided into two sedimentary facies: a tidal shallow marine facies (55-850 cm) and a shallow marine facies (0-55 cm). Although the sedimentary environments of its upper and lower parts are different, the provenance of the whole core does not change. The heavy mineral assemblage, the results of the discrimination function of Fe, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn, the carbonate content and the Ba-Sr-Zn ternary diagram consistently show that the heavy mineral and
geochemical characteristics of core DGKS9617 are similar to that of the Yangtze River sediments and that its sediment is mainly provided by the Yangtze River.
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa biomass was used to investigate the biosorption properties of heavy metals in wastewater. The biosorption isotherm of Co2+ was best described by the Langmuir model when washed cells were employed, and results obtained utilizing heat-treated P. aeruginosa were also adequately represented by a Langmuir sorption isotherm. In contrast, the sorption isotherm involving unwashed P. aeruginosa showed a different isotherm profile and did not attain equilibrium in the range of metal concentrations investigated; the amount of Co2+ uptake increased with increasing initial metal concentration but never reached adsorption equilibrium, most likely due to bacterial production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The biosorption results utilizing unwashed P. aeruginosa were best described by a Freundlich isotherm. The level of metal
adsorption in low pH was significantly small due to competition between the cation and H+ ions for binding sites distributed on cell surfaces, while the increase in pH favored metal sorption because of the elevated quantities of negatively charged surface functional groups. The sorption of Co2+ was strongly influenced by the presence of competing cations in the solution. Trivalent Cr3+ added to the solution was preferentially adsorbed onto the cells relative to Co2+ and Ni2+. The results may be attributed to the higher adsorption affinity of Cr3+ in comparison to either Co2+ or Ni2+. The affinity order (Cr3+ > Co2+ » Ni2+) was maintained over a pH range up to 5.3 in a mixture solution.