Bioceramics 19

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Authors: Faik N. Oktar, Simeon Agathopoulos, Gultekin Goller, H. Gökçe, E.S. Kayali, S. Salman
Abstract: Porous scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA), derived from calcined bovine bones and doped with various reinforcing materials, such as Ti, TiO2 and Li2O, were produced with the aid of commercial sugar, which was added as 20 wt% with respect to the total batch, and sintering at 1200°C and 1300°C. The samples were characterized by SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis as well as by porosity measurements. The experimental results showed that porosity can be controlled by the correct selection of doping materials. The optimum sintering temperature was 1200°C since firing at 1300°C caused extended sintering and thus porosity was considerably reduced. Matching of chemical nature as well as thermal expansion coefficients between HA and the doping components are of high importance for the structural integrity of the resultant scaffolds. Doping with Li2CO3 seemed to have the highest potential for achieving high porosity, likely due to the decomposition to Li2O, but the amount of Li2CO3 used should not jeopardizing HA bioactivity. The use of natural sugar is an economic way of producing safe for the health porous HA scaffolds.
Authors: Xiao Liang Wang, Xu Dong Li, Xiao Min Wang, Jian Lu, Hui Chuan Zhao, Xing Dong Zhang, Zhong Wei Gu
Abstract: Collagen (Col) and chitosan (Chi) are both natural polymers and have received extensive investigation in recent years in the field of tissue engineering, but there are few reports on the introduction of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the Col-Ch system. In this study, based on the miscibility of these two polymers under proper condition, hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesis in the Col-Chi system by in-situ co-precipitate method to give rise to a novel nanocomposite. The structural characterization of such Col-Ch-HA nano-materials was carried out by using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA analyses with main components and Col-Chi samples used for comparison. It was found that there exist interactions between Col and Chi molecules. The nucleation and growth of inorganic phase occurs in the Col-Chi system and final products are uniform dispersion of nano-sized HA in the Col-Chi network without obvious phase separation. This novel nanocomposite would be a promising material for bone tissue engineering.
Authors: G.S. Lee, Sang Bae Lee, Doug Youn Lee, Kyeong Jun Park, S.O. Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, B.J. Choi
Abstract: Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) has been widely utilized as a tissue adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and adhesive properties of newly developed cyanoacrylate-based β-TCP composite systems. The β-TCP powder was modified on the surface with citric acid to make this material mixed with cyanoacrylate easily. The setting time of acidtreated β-TCP/ Histoacryl® systems was dramatically prolonged and the polymerization heat was significantly decreased compared to that of untreated β-TCP/Histoacryl® system. The shear bond strength of cyanoacrylate-based β-TCP composites decreased with addition of acid-treated β-TCP filler. The compressive strength of β-TCP/Histoacryl® composites increased strongly with increasing the amount of acid-treated β-TCP filler. The cytotoxicity of the β-TCP/Histoacryl® composites decreased with the increasing of the amount of added β-TCP. These results indicated that our novel β-TCP/Histoacryl® composites had the great potential to serve as adhesives or filling materials in the dental field.
Authors: Qing Rong Wei, Jian Lu, Hui Chuan Zhao, Bo Jiang, Bo Zhang, Zhong Wei Gu, Xing Dong Zhang, Ji Yong Chen
Abstract: In order to develop a bone-filling material with osteoinductive potential, a composite micorspheres of collagen molecules and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was prepared by utilizing emulsion polymerization and the intrinsic self-assembly of collagen. The prepared microspheres were analyzed by granularity test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectra (IR) and enzymatic digestion experiment. The results showed that the collagen matrix of fibrils was reconstituted in the droplets, and the native triple-helix structure of collagen was still maintained. The study provides an effective way to prepare microspheres of collagen and BCP composite.
Authors: Gui Qiu Zheng, Xu Dong Li, Xiao Min Wang, Su Hong Yu, Zhong Wei Gu, Xing Dong Zhang
Abstract: Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) in organic solutions has received extensive attention in recent years with an attempt to obtain HA of a nanometer level. In this preliminary study, we demonstrated that organic-HA nanocomposites could also be achieved with one step method via in situ mineralization and subsequent crosslinking of organic species. This design was realized through in situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite in poly(vinyl alcohol) and acrylic acid aqueous solution as an organic template. The aforementioned organic-inorganic nanocomposites were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electrical microscopy, thermal analysis. The comparative structural measurements were also conducted with the synthesized HA with absence of the organic template. The results indicated that the existence of organic species effectively inhibits the growth of calcium phosphate and that relatively pure HA can be obtained in sintered composite products. The present study provides a direct and versatile route for fabrication of nanocomposite biomaterials.
Authors: Jia Wu, Qiao Ling Hu, Fu Ping Chen, Bao Qiang Li, Jia Cong Shen
Abstract: Magnetite/hydroxyapatite/chitosan rods have been prepared via in situ compositing method. The mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated for suitability as a bone repair materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to investigate the microstructure of CS/HA/Fe3O4 composite. Effect of inorganic content on the mechanical properties of the CS/HA/Fe3O4 composite was also investigated. It was observed that the mechanical properties of the composite in the dry condition improved as the percentage of CS content increased. Mechanical properties of CS/HA/Fe3O4 composite rod are much better than that prepared via traditional method. Bending strength, bending modulus of CS/HA/Fe3O4 composite are 118.5 MPa, 2.3 GPa, respectively. All of these material properties are twice or three times stronger compared with that of nature bone of human being.
Authors: Toshiki Miyazaki, S. Yasunaga, Eiichi Ishida, Masahiro Ashizuka, Chikara Ohtsuki
Abstract: So-called bioactive ceramics bond to living bone through the apatite layer formed on their surfaces in the body. The apatite deposition is triggered by dissolution of calcium ion (Ca2+) and by silanol (Si-OH) group formed on the surfaces of the ceramics. It is expected that organic modification of these components would produce bioactive materials with high flexibility. In this study, we examined bioactivity and mechanical properties of the organic-inorganic hybrids from starch by modification with silanol group and calcium ion. Effect of cross-linking agent was also investigated. The obtained hybrids showed bioactivity and mechanical properties analogous to those of human cancellous bone by appropriate control in their compositions. Addition of cross-linking agent to improve mechanical strength of the hybrids did not decrease their bioactivity.
Authors: Ute Ploska, Georg Berger
Abstract: A long-term stable material, which has two main crystalline phases – fluorapatite (FA) and calcium zirconium phosphate (CZP) [1, 2] and could be processed to dense sintered samples was tested related to the use with two application forms – spongiosa-like specimen and foils. The suitability of various sintering additives was investigated alone and in diverse combinations. During sintering of the spongiosa-like samples volume shrinkage of about 50% was observed whereas the shrinkage in x,y plane was about twice of the shrinkage in z direction. The cuboid form was not affected by the shrinkage. The compression strength of the spongiosa-like materials was in the range of 1MPa up to 1.6MPa. A ceramic foil was generated via foil slip casting of a slip containing about 38vol% of FA-CZP. Temperature programs were created for debindering and sintering of the green foil and the four-fold laminate, respectively.
Authors: Jing Chao Zhang, Juan Liao, An Chun Mo, Hong Kun Wu, Yu Bao Li, Guo Yu Lv, Xiao Yu Li
Abstract: In the present in vitro study, osteoblasts proliferation, vitality and ultrastructure were investigated when cultured in the presence of silver-hydroxyapatite/titania nanoparticles (nAg_HA/TiO2) compared to HA nanoparticles (nHA) at various concentrations and cell culture without nanoparticles for up to 120 hours. Results confirmed the detrimental influences of both nAg_HA/TiO2 and nHA on osteoblast growth.Cell vitality was slightly higher during the earlier 24h, but after that was inhibited. Both cell proliferation and vitality by addition of nanoparticles were restricted with concentrations of nanoparticles increasing. However, the respiration rates by addition of nanoparticles were showed higher than that of the cell culture without nanoparticles. No remarkable ultrastructure changes were showed in the osteoblasts exposed nanoparticles. The difference in cell proliferation, vitality and ultrastructure between nAg_HA/TiO2 and nHA were insignificant. It was demonstrated that biocompatibility of nAg_HA/TiO2 is almost the same as nHA.

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