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Authors: Young Kook Lee, Jin-Myung Hong, Chong Sool Choi, Jae Kon Lee
Abstract: Effects of niobium content and cooling rate on ferrite and bainite start temperatures (Ar3, Bs) and microstructural features have been studied in niobium bearing ultralow carbon microalloyed steels. The Ar3 and Bs temperatures decrease as niobium content or cooling rate is increased. The dependence of Ar3 on cooling rate is greater than that of Bs in all niobium contents. The bainitic ferrite laths become longer and narrower with increasing niobium content and cooling rate, and niobium also shows a tendency to decrease polygonal ferrite grain size.
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Authors: Q.P. Meng, Yong Hua Rong, T.Y. Hsu
Abstract: The quantitative relationships are suggested that the applied stress decreases the nucleation barrier and activation energy of nucleation of martensitic transformation, and strain increases the nucleus sites. Taking Fe-20Ni-0.5C and Fe-25Ni-0.66C alloys as examples, their different martensitic morphologies in thermal-mechanical processing can be explained and the origin of such a difference may be revealed based on the above theoretical analysis. Accordingly, the control of martensitic morphologies in thermal-mechanical processing of ferrous alloys will become possible.
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Authors: Jun Jie Qi, Wang Yue Yang, Zu Qing Sun, X. Zhang
Abstract: Quantitative characterization of microstructural development during deformation enhanced transformation in a low carbon steel was investigated on a Gleeble 1500 machine. General conclusions of the features of austenite transformation kinetics during deformation-enhanced transformation were formulated. It was shown that the process of deformation-enhanced transformation can be divided into three stages according to the characteristics of transformation kinetics: The kinetics equations of two early stages fitted well in J-M-A equation. The kinetics of the first stage obeys Cahn’s site saturation mechanism, with the value of kinetics parameter n of 4. Ferrite nucleates at austenite grain boundaries and triple points during the first stage. Kinetics of the second stage doesn’t obey Cahn’s theory, with the value of kinetics parameter n of 1-1.5, corresponding to ferrite nucleation repeatedly at areas with high stored energy in front of the ferrite/austenite interface. The kinetics doesn’t obey the law of J-M-A equation any more in the final stage, and only few nucleation sites left at this moment.
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Authors: Long Li, Chun Zheng Yang, Hua Ding, Lin Xiu Du, Xiang Hua Liu, Guo Dong Wang, Hongmei Song, Pijun Zhang
Abstract: TMCP treatments were carried out on B510L steel followed by using a pilot rolling mill. Effects of finish rolling temperature and coiling temperature on mechanical properties and microstructures of the steel were analyzed. The tensile and impact properties were measured and the microstructures were observed by OM, TEM and SEM. With a proper control of rolling and cooling conditions, the yield strength of 500MPa was obtained, which was much higher than that in normal production. The yield ratio and ductility of the experimental steel were also reasonable. It was revealed that a good combination of ferrite with bainite microstructure was ideal for good mechanical properties. It was also concluded that the strengthening mechanisms included solution hardening, fine ferrite grain hardening, bainite hardening and precipitation hardening. This work can provide an experimental basis for industrial productions.
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Authors: Sung Kang Hur, Kee Sam Shin, Jung Hoon Yoo, Ja Min Koo, Soo Lee, Yeon Gil Jung, Chang Wan Bae
Abstract: The evolution of microstructure and its effects on the mechanical properties of modified 9%Cr-1%Mo steel during heat-treating at 1050°C for 15 min and then isothermal heat treatment at 380~760°C with subsequent air-cooling have been investigated. For the microstructural and mechanical property analyses, OM, SEM, EDS, XRD, hardness and impact tests were used. In accordance with the severity of the heat-treatment, the microstructure evolved from the untransformed martensite to the partially transformed dual phases of martensite and ferrite, and then fully transformed to ferrite. Impact values at ambient temperature for specimens isothermally heat-treated at 320 - 380°C, predominantly at about 350°C were lower than others’ with similar martensitic structure. The partially transformed specimens with dual phases of martensite and ferrite also showed lower impact values than samples with untransformed with martensitic, and transformed with ferritic structures.
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Authors: Cheng Jia Shang, Y.T. Zhao, Xue Min Wang, L.J. Hu, Shan Wu Yang, Xin Lai He
Abstract: The influence of processing parameters on the acicular ferrite formation for the low carbon microalloying steel was studied. The results showed that the fraction of acicular ferrite could be controlled by the cooling process. The acicular ferrite/ bainitic ferrite dual phase structure can be formed. The multi-phase microstructure is ultra fine. The hardness is sensitively affected by the acicular ferrite fraction.
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Authors: Kee Hyun Kim, Nong Moon Hwang, Byeong Joo Lee, Jong Kyu Yoon
Abstract: Mechanical properties of line pipe steels used in the deep sea or in the severe cold climate depend on alloying elements and manufacturing processes and many efforts have been made to enhance the properties of the line pipe steels. In this study, for systematic approaches to the process design of line pipe steels, its phase diagram was calculated using a Thermo-CalcTM program. The calculations indicated that A3 is around 840oC. Setting the FRT(Finish Rolling Temperature) above A3 appears to be critical to the increase of strength and toughness of line pipe steels by increasing the amounts of acicular ferrite and at the same time by decreasing the precipitation of proeutectoid ferrite. In the case of the FRT below A3, relatively large amounts of proeutectoid ferrite are precipitated from the matrix with the carbon contents of the austenite phase around ferrite being enriched.
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Authors: Ye Hua Jiang, Rong Feng Zhou, Dehong Lu, Zhen Hua Li
Abstract: A bainite/martensite dual-phase cast steel was fabricated by a process of combination of alloying with Si and Mn elements and controlled cooling heat-treatment. Its microstructure was consisted of fine lower bainite with carbide particles precipitated homogeneously, martensite and a little residual austenite. Because of the good match of hardness and impact toughness, its impact wear performance was a little better than that of the isothermal quenching steel, and much better than that of high manganese steel such as Mn13.
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Authors: Yun Hua Huang, Yue Zhang, Hao Zhai, Cheng Zhou, Jian He
Abstract: The microstructure of a microalloying non-quenching and tempering steel developed recently was analyzed through OM, SEM and TEM, in order to find the strengthening and toughening mechanisms of the steel. All of the dislocations and subgrain boundaries in the grains, the martensite in the martensite-austenite islands of the grainy bainite structure, the dispersed phases in the grains and at the grain boundaries, and the grain size were observed and studied in our experiments. The results indicate that the strengthening results from phase transition, dislocation, subgrain structure, dispersion phase and fined grain, and the toughness relates with the ferrite matrix consisting of the grainy bainite and the grain size of the steel. The mechanisms between the hot-rolled-and-cooled and the tempered steel are slightly different.
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Authors: L.N. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, D.L. Liu
Abstract: Plain low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) process was analyzed using TEM, EELS and XEDS. Nano-sized oxides and sulfides were observed in the steel. The nano-oxides are mainly ferrospinel of <20nm in size, and the nano-sulfides are MnS and FeS particles with size of 20-100 nm. They distributed both in grains and at grain boundaries. These nano precipitates could form in cast slab before heavy deformation by rolling process. It is proposed that besides the grain refinement, the nano-pricipitation plays an important role in yield strength enhancement. This mechanism may provide a new approach to strengthen plain low carbon steels.
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