Abstract: Tungsten, molybdenum and cobalt were co-diffused into the surface of undecarburized 45 steel at 1150 °C for 6 hours by a double glow plasma surface alloying technique. A Fe-W-Mo-Co type gradient surface alloyed layer with very low carbon content was formed. Thickness of the surface alloyed layer is 225.2μm. Concentrations of alloying elements Co, W and Mo in the alloyed layer are mostly ranged from 21 to 14 wt.%, 12 to 6 wt.% and 7 to 5 wt.%, respectively. The concentrations of alloying elements basically meet the requirements of W11Mo7Co23 type age-hardened high speed steel. The alloyed samples were solution heat treated, ageing and high-temperature tempering. The results show that the surface alloyed layer formed on 45 steel exhibits very strong age-hardening property and anti-temper softening ability as the metallurgical age-hardened high speed steel, the surface age-hardened high speed steel on ingot and decarburized carbon steel.
Abstract: Effects of aging treatment on high temperature strength of Nb added ferritic stainless steels for automotive parts were investigated. Hot tensile tests were carried out at 700 °C after the aging at 700 °C for different aging times using Gleeble 1500. High temperature strength of all steels decreased as the aging time increased. In Nb free steels, the reduction in high temperature strength is mainly due
to grain growth. On the other hand, in Nb added steels, the reduction in high temperature strength occurred by Nb precipitation. It was observed that Fe2Nb (Laves phase), Nb(C,N) and Fe3Nb3C were precipitated out during the aging at 700 °C in Nb added steels. The coarsening rate of Fe2Nb was higher than that of Nb(C,N). Fine Fe2Nb precipitates formed during at the early stage of aging
contributed to high temperature strength in 0.01C-0.38Nb steel. However, coarse Fe2Nb particles formed during the aging were very detrimental to high temperature strength. The coarsening of Fe2Nb was relatively retarded by adding Mo.
Abstract: The influence of the texture development in Ti-added (0.03, 0.05 and 0.07wt%) IF
(Interstitial Free) steels on physical properties, especially ř -value was investigated. It was intended to determine the proper Ti content for the promotion of deep drawability as well as mechanical properties of IF steels. The precipitation behavior in the IF steels was clarified with the aid of computer simulation. The quantitative X-ray analysis on the texture development of IF steels was performed using pole figure and orientation distribution function measurement. For the IF steel with the composition of 0.025C, 0.070Mn, 0.002N and 0.007S, the optimum Ti content was found to be 0.05wt%.
Abstract: The aim of the this investigation is to study the influence of Ni on tribiological behavior of an austempered ductile iron (ADI) containing Mo, Ni and Cu. Ductile irons with chemical composition Fe-3.56%C– 2.67%Si –0.25%Mo–0.5%Cu and Ni contents of 0.8 and 1.5% were cast into standard Y-blocks. Wear test samples were machined off from the bottom section of blocks. Austenitizing heat treatment was carried out at 870°C temperature followed by austempering at 270, 320, and
370°C for 5-1140 minutes. The wear test was carried out by using block-on-ring test machine. Sliding dry wear behavior was studied under applied loads of 50, 100 and 150N. The results show that wear resistance is independent of austempering temperature with an applied load of 50N, but there is a strong dependence at higher austempering temperatures with applied loads of 100 and 150N. Wear mechanism is described as being due to subsurface fatigue, with cracks nucleated at plastically, deformed graphite interfaces. The wear controlling mechanism is the crack growth when wear shows a dependence on applied load and austempering temperature.
Abstract: Austempered ductile iron provide a unique combination of strength and toughness coupled with excellent design flexibility for automotive application as compared to forged or cast steels. Some material properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and its influence in final machining tolerance is a matter of discussion in the automotive industry. In this study the effect of heat treatment cycle on the microstructure & thermal expansion of ADI was investigated. Samples were austempered at 275 º C and 375 º C for one hour and then dilatometric test carried out in the temperature range of 50 °C to 350 °C, then the result was compared with the thermal expansion coefficient of forged steel. Microstructure and mechanical investigations were used to the assurance of these results. The results indicate that replacing of forged steel with ADI due to lower cost production and reduction in weight is possible if the correct tolerance were selected.
Abstract: The relationship between the toughness and silicon content of high strength Mn-Si-Cr series bainitic steels has been investigated. The results show that with increasing in silicon content, the onset temperature of the steel’s tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) rises; moreover, the minimum value of tested toughness decreases and the tempering temperature corresponding to the minimum value of toughness increases. This phenomenon results from the effect of silicon on the stability of filmy carbon-enriched retained austenite in carbide-free bainite/martensite (CFB/M) microstructure.
Abstract: The influence of rare earths(RE) and Mg compound modification on eutectic carbide morphology and matrix of high speed steel(HSS) roll was investigated. The results show that the matrix can be refined by the RE-Mg compound modifier, the eutectic carbides are inclined to turn into small lump, whose distribution is homogeneous. After modification, the heat conductivity coefficient of HSS is increased and heat expansion coefficient is decreased. Moreover, RE-Mg
modification is able to increase the cycles of thermal fatigue crack initiation and decrease the propagation rate. After cycling 700 times at the condition of heating at 600oC and cooling in 25oC water, the length of thermal fatigue crack is lessened by 41.12%.
Abstract: Atmospheric corrosion for carbon steel was discussed with taking notice of the relation between the corrosion rate, CR, and the thickness of adsorbed water film, d, onto deposited sea salt. Amount of water adsorbed onto sea salt was measured under various conditions of amount of deposited sea salt, Ws, and relative humidity, RH. Derived concentration of the solution film was compared with that calculated thermodynamically. Corrosion amount of carbon steel specimens exposed for a month under various Ws and RH was measured and CR along with d were obtained for each condition. The relations of CR to d had the same tendency as is found on “moist corrosion” and “wet corrosion” in Tomashov’s model; However, it showed a maximum CR = 0.29mm/y at d = 56µm, thicker than that reported by Tomashov.
Abstract: A new method has been developed to determine the activation energy for hydrogen
desorption from steels by means of thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). This method directly fits the Kissinger’s reaction kinetic formula dX/dt=A(1-X)exp(-Ed/RT) to experimentally measured thermal desorption spectrum and best fit yields the activation energy (Ed) and the value of constant A. It has been proven that this new method is applicable to precise measurement of the activation energy for hydrogen desorption from incoherent TiC particle, coherent TiC precipitate, grain boundary and dislocation in 0.05C-0.20Ti-2.0Ni and 0.42C-0.30Ti steels.