Aluminium Alloys 2006 - ICAA10

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Authors: Mohsen Asle Zaeem, M.R. Nami, I. Rajabi, M.H. Kadivar
Abstract: In this paper global welding buckling distortion of a thin wall aluminum T joint is investigated. A thermo-elastoplastic model is employed to determine longitudinal residual stresses; analysis of thermal model and elastic-viscoplastic (Anand) model are decoupled. Molten puddle motion (speed of welding) is modeled by using birth and death element method and time dependent model. Three dimensional nonlinear-transient heat flow analysis has been used to obtain temperature distribution, and then by applying thermal results and using three dimensional Anand elastic-viscoplastic model, stress and deformation distributions are obtained. By applying residual stresses on a structural model and using eigenvalue methods, global buckling instability of the welded structure is determined. Some experiments are done for validating the numerical results.
Authors: J. Daniel Bryant, Deborah Wilhelmy, Jacob Kallivayalil, Wei Wang
Abstract: Aluminum foams offer an attractive combination of attributes as engineering materials, such as low density, high rigidity, high energy absorption, and fire resistance. To date, however, metallic foams have achieved only a fraction of the market acceptance enjoyed by polymeric foams, owing largely to size limitations, poor uniformity and, above all, high unit costs. Methods utilizing casting (non-powder) metallurgy, while seemingly offering the potential of economies of scale, often suffer quality issues such as large cell sizes, poor uniformity and insufficient structural integrity. Many of these problems are associated with the rheology of the molten metal itself. While prior efforts to modify melt rheology through extrinsic additions of ceramic particles have been shown to be effective, the costly materials and processing paths used to create such suspensions have limited the economic attractiveness of such products. In this paper, aluminum foams produced through an alternative processing method will be described. The physical and mechanical properties in these fine (< 1 mm) celled aluminum foams will be related to their cellular structure and the properties of the aluminum alloy matrix from which they are produced.
Authors: Karl Heinz von Zengen
Abstract: Use of aluminium in modern cars has increased during the past 50 years due to the good properties of the metal and the need for light weighting cars. The permanent rise in energy costs and need for reduction of emissions world wide make aluminium more and more attractive for automotive use. Nevertheless, additional costs for light weighting must remain affordable – materials scientists and process engineers are challenged to meet these requirements.
Authors: Jürgen Hirsch, Christian Leroy, Andrew Green
Abstract: The web-based e-learning tool “AluMATTER” is presented which can be accessed under the address “” and offers a new interactive course for students, engineers or technicians to learn all about Aluminium science and technologies. The e-learning program fulfils all distant learning requirements and intends to supplement regular teaching courses. It allows users to access the material in a context relevant to their own requirements and background.
Authors: Xiao Lin Wu, Kenong Xia
Abstract: An innovative process for synthesising bulk materials using particles has been developed. The process is termed back pressure equal channel angular consolidation (BP-ECAC). Aluminium based materials were successfully consolidated into bulk materials using particles from nano to micro scales. BP-ECAC allowed the particles to be used directly without pre-compacting and casing and the processing temperatures to be significantly lower than those used in conventional sintering. Fully dense bulk samples were obtained instantaneously as the particles were forced to pass the shearing zone under pressure. Nanostructured materials were obtained from the nanometre-sized Al particles. Significant strengthening of the consolidated materials were observed. The new process is promising in producing porosity free, large volume materials with special compositions and structures.
Authors: S.G. Shabestari, N. Wanderka, W. Seeliger, John Banhart
Abstract: Aluminium foam sandwich panels (AFS) made of a low-density aluminium alloy AlSi6Cu6 foam core and two dense 6082 alloy face sheets were fabricated, after which the panels were subjected to two different heat treatments. First, the AFS panels were aged to increase their strength without further solution heat treatment and fast quenching, a process which resembles a T5 treatment. Second, to define a reference point the face sheets of AFS samples were cut off the foam and subjected to a full T6 treatment. Hardness profiles were measured across the thickness of the face sheets after the two different treatments and the microstructure was investigated. The main conclusion is that mechanical performance of AFS panels can be considerably increased by heat treatment without full solution heat treatment (T5), but without reaching the level of a full T6 treatment. The potential use of an easy to apply T5 treatment is an important cost reducing factor.
Authors: Margarita Slámová, Petr Homola, P. Sláma, Miroslav Karlík, Miroslav Cieslar, Yoshitatsu Ohara, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Abstract: Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) is a technique of grain refinement by severe plastic deformation, which involves multiple repetitions of surface treatment, stacking, rolling, and cutting. The rolling with 50% reduction in thickness bonds the sheets. After several cycles, ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials are produced. Since ARB enables the production of large amounts of UFG materials, its adoption into industrial practice is favoured. ARB has been successfully used for preparation of UFG sheets from different ingot cast aluminium alloys. Twin-roll casting (TRC) is a cost and energy effective method for manufacturing aluminium sheets. Fine particles and small grain size are intrinsic for TRC sheets making them good starting materials for ARB. The paper presents the results of a research aimed at investigating the feasibility of ARB processing of three TRC alloys, AA8006, AA8011 and AA5754, at ambient temperature. The microstructure and properties of the ARB were investigated by means of light and transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. AA8006 specimens were ARB processed without any problems. Sound sheets of AA8011 alloy were also obtained even after 8 cycles of ARB. The AA5754 alloy suffered from severe edge and notch cracking since the first cycle. The work hardening of AA8006 alloy saturated after the 3rd cycle, whereas the hardness of AA5754 alloy increased steadily up to the 5th cycle. Monotonous increase in strength up to 280 MPa was observed in the ARB processed AA8011 alloy.
Authors: John Liu
Abstract: Alcoa has made a fundamental shift in its aerospace R&D program, broadening its scientific and engineering portfolio by creating an integrated, strategic, long-term initiative. The ultimate goal is to help re-define the future performance, cost and value of the metallic and hybrid aerostructures that the company feels will be required to meet the mission requirements of tomorrow’s aircraft. Having intensely studied various structural options, Alcoa believes Hybrid Structural Assembly optimized with a combination of Advanced Aluminum and Hybrid Components offer the best opportunities to maximize structural performance. Not only do the new alloys, notably 3rd Generation Al-Li alloys and high strength and high toughness 7xxx alloys provide structural performance enhancements, they also offer dramatic improvements in corrosion resistance. In this paper, several advanced alloys and structural concepts targeted for next generation wing and fuselage applications and large scale test article results supporting Alcoa’s optimism for Advanced Metallic and Hybrid Structures are reviewed.
Authors: Subodh K. Das
Abstract: Recycling aluminum alloys has been shown to provide major economic benefits, as a result it is appropriate for the aluminum industry and the United States as a whole to identify, develop, and implement all technologies that will optimize the benefits of recycling. This paper will focus primarily alloy design for optimizing the reuse of recycled metal; this is both the most forward looking as we move toward a more recycling friendly world and the most overlooked for its potential in maximizing the recycle loop. Some specific approaches to alloy design for recycling are put forth, and some specific compositions for evaluation are proposed. Options for moving forward to further capitalize of the advantages of aluminum recycling are also addressed.
Authors: O. Stelling, A. Irretier, O. Kessler, P. Krug, Bernd Commandeur
Abstract: Aluminum alloys with high Mg2Si-content (>10 %) offer the possibility of a significant decrease in density and an increase in stiffness at the same time. But these alloys can hardly be produced in casting processes, due to an oxidation and a generation of pores by hydrogen solubility of the melt. Furthermore, the usual solidification rate is not sufficient for a fine microstructure morphology. A fine distribution of Mg2Si is possible by spray forming, where a coarsening of the particles can be avoided due to a higher solidification rate. Different aluminum alloys with high Mg2Si-content (>10 %) have successfully been produced by spray forming, extrusion and age hardening. Mg-excess as well as Si-excess has been investigated. An additional alloying with copper leads to a further increase in strength by the precipitation sequence of Al2Cu. The new light-weight aluminum alloys have been investigated regarding age hardening, physical and mechanical properties. Densities of 2.5-2.6 g/cm3 and Young´s modulus of approx. 80,000 MPa have been found. Microstructures were dense, homogeneous and of fine morphology. The yield strength of these alloys reached values of approx. 400 MPa after artificial aging, whereby only a slight decrease for the hot yield strength was observed up to a temperature of 200 °C. Applications of the new light-weight aluminum alloys can be expected where a reduced density together with a high hot yield strength would lead to a more compact design in high temperature environments, e.g. in combustion engines.

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