Materials Science, Testing and Informatics III

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Authors: György Kaptay
Abstract: In the present paper the wettability of a liquid metal by another liquid metal is studied theoretically, based on a recent model on interfacial energies in metallic systems. It appears that in all practical cases the liquid metal with a lower surface tension will perfectly wet (with a zero contact angle) the liquid metal with a higher surface tension practically at any temperature, and therefore will encapsulate it. As a result, the first order surface phase transition will start in monotectic metallic systems at 0 K. The phenomenon of the surface phase transition is considered in some details, based on a recent paper.
527
Authors: O. Niño, D. Martínez, C. Lizcano, Martha Patrizia Guerrero-Mata, Rafael Colás
Abstract: The process known as Tempcore is used to produce high resistance rods by the formation of a surface layer of quenched and tempered martensite that surrounds a core made of ferrite and pearlite. Such a mixed structure is result of processing hot rolled rods through waters headers that reduce the temperature at the surface below that for the transformation into martensite. This structure is tempered by the heat flowing from the core of the rod, which transforms into ferrite and pearlite while the rod is in the cooling beds. Such processing produces a significant increase in yield and ultimate tensile strength, while maintaining adequate ductility. The economic advantages of this process are huge in comparison with those that require alloying elements or further metal working to improve mechanical properties. A series of experimental trials were carried out in a pilot plant in which parameters such as reheating temperature, water flow and processing time were varied to study their effect on the mechanical properties of carbon steel rods and on the structures formed in the bars. The study is being complemented by the thermal modelling by the finite element method.
533
Authors: Zoltán Pálmai
Abstract: The author developed a three-dimensional model for the description of fast plastic deformation of metals in the case of cutting. Shear strain occurring as a result of shear stress has a reverse effect on stress, while the temperature of the material is increasing. These counteracting effects may lead to thermomechanic instability, which may result in aperiodic chaotic conditions besides periodic fluctuation due to the non-linear nature of the process. Apart from bifurcation and multi-cycle periodic deformation, the model also describes aperiodic chaotic deformation, which is proven by experimental results.
541
Authors: Mihály Réger, Balázs Verő, Zsolt Csepeli, Péter Pinke
Abstract: The final microstructure of DP and TRIP assisted steels can evolve after hot working (hot rolling) or during post heat treatment process. In the formation of the final structure a number of different technological parameters have important role, e.g. finishing temperature of rolling, cooling rates, temperature of intercritical annealing, etc. As a result of the individual factors and their combinations a lot of production technology routes are feasible. The effect of the different combinations of these technological parameters on the microstructure can be mapped by a special Jominy end-quench test (so called intercritical Jominy end-quench test) described in this paper. Unlike the traditional Jominy test, in this case there is a partial austenizing between A1 and A3 temperatures which results in a given amount of ferrite in the microstructure before quenching. The amount of ferrite depends on the temperature. In some cases the quenching process was interrupted for a given period of time in order to model the cooling process on the run-out table. During cooling each point of the Jominy specimen has a different cooling rate, so the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure can be evaluated along the length of the specimen.
549
Authors: Mihály Réger, Balázs Verő, Árpád Szélig
Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of solidification, cooling and expected properties of continuously cast slabs. Semi-empirical models based on theoretical consideration and on the results of heat transfer model are used for characterization of the following: surface and inner temperature distribution of the cast semis, liquid sump depth and shape, liquid motion intensity resulting in centerline segregation, parameters of the primary dendritic structure (primary and secondary dendritic spacings, columnar to equiaxed transition position, CET). This method provides an opportunity to make a realistic comparison between the solidification and final properties of semis with different chemical compositions as a function of applied casting technologies. The final goal of this research activity in the future is to define a comprehensive quality function for optimizing continuous casting technology.
555
Authors: Tamás Réti, Agnes Csizmazia, Imre Felde
Abstract: To characterize topologically the polycrystalline microstructure of single-phase alloys computer simulations are performed on 3-dimensional cellular models. These infinite periodic cellular systems are constructed from a finite set of space filling convex polyhedra (grains). It is shown that the appropriately selected topological shape factors can be successfully used for the quantitative characterization of computer-simulated microstructures of various types.
563
Authors: Tamás Réti, Imre Czinege, Imre Felde, Lino Costa, Rafael Colás
Abstract: Kinetic models of new types are suggested which are designated primarily to predict the progress of non-isothermal transformations occurring during rapid heating and cooling in alloys. A common feature of each model outlined is that it takes into account not only the varying temperature but also the rate of temperature change on the transformation rate of the process. The two models represented by differential equations are generated by using the concept of virtual kinetic parameters, which can be determined from non-isothermal experiments only. A key property of the virtual parameter "p" involved in the transformation rate equations is that it quantitatively characterizes the temperature rate dependence of the non-isothermal reaction.
571
Authors: Tamás Réti, Ibolya Zsoldos
Abstract: In order to simulate the polyhedral grain nucleation in alloys, 3-D cell population growth processes are studied in space-filling periodic cellular systems. We discussed two different methods by which space-filling polyhedral cellular systems can be constructed by topological transformations performed on “stable” 3-D cellular systems. It has been demonstrated that an infinite sequence of stable periodic space-filling polyhedral systems can be generated by means of a simple recursion procedure based on a vertex based tetrahedron insertion. On the basis of computed results it is conjectured that in a 3-D periodic, topologically stable cellular system the minimum value of the average face number 〈f〉 of polyhedral cells is larger than eight (i.e. 〈f〉 > 8). The outlined algorithms (which are based on cell decomposition and/or cell nucleation) provide a new perspective to simulate grain population growth processes in materials with polyhedral microstructure.
579
Authors: Arnold Rónaföldi, Jenő Kovács, András Roósz
Abstract: Experiments were performed for visual observation and investigation of liquid Gallium flow at a temperature of 40oC in a rotating magnetic field. Two different measuring methods were developed to determine the revolution number of rotating melt. In both cases the frequency of magnetic induction was 50, 100 and 150 Hz and the values of magnetic induction could be changed between 0 and 70 mT. The magnetic Taylor number changed between 0 and 3.54x107 during the experiments.
591
Authors: Reza Rowshan, Mária Kocsis Baán
Abstract: When applying laser transformation hardening (LTH) on a steel part the aim is to harden a localized area, which results in high hardness value for a defined width and depth of the material. To assure the hardened zone and keep the maximum temperature of the surface below the melting point we have used a finite element model (FEM) to compute the solution for heat distributions and the phase transformation of the material during LTH. Modelling results were used to introduce safe operating regions for LTH with different processing conditions. A problem associated with some LTH applications is the necessity to overlap the hardening passes. The temperature distribution of this phenomenon was also modelled using FEM which truly assist in finding optimum overlapping and technological parameters.
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