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Authors: Véronique Massardier-Jourdan, David Colas, Jacques Merlin
Abstract: The thermoelectric power (or TEP) technique was used to determine the segregation kinetics of the interstitial atoms (C or N) to the dislocations in various extra-mild steels submitted to a heavy deformation by cold-rolling when substitutional atoms (Mn or Cr) are simultaneously in solid solution. It was shown that the substitutional atoms (Mn or Cr) have almost no influence on the segregation kinetics of carbon and on the activation energy associated with the segregation of this element. In contrast, these elements tend to delay the segregation kinetics of nitrogen to the dislocations all the more so as their content in solution is high. In the mean time, the activation energy associated with the segregation of nitrogen is increased.
Authors: Koh Ichi Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro Itoh, Tomohiko Hojo, Shunichi Hashimoto, Shushi Ikeda, Goro Arai
Authors: Ilana B. Timokhina, Elena V. Pereloma, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: The effect of pre-straining (PS) and bake-hardening (BH) on the microstructure and mechanical properties has been studied in C-Mn-Si TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels after: (i) thermomechanically processing (TMP) and (ii) intercritical annealing. The steels were characterised before and after PS/BH by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tensile tests. The main microstructural differences were the higher volume fraction of bainite and more stable retained austenite in the TMP steel. This led to a difference in the strain-hardening behavior before and after BH treatment. The higher dislocation density in ferrite and formation of microbands in the TMP steel after PS and the formation of Fe3C carbides between the bainitic ferrite laths during BH for both steels also affected the strain-hardening behavior. However, both steels after PS/BH treatment demonstrated an increase in the yield and tensile strength.
Authors: L. Zhao, Niels H. van Dijk, E.R. Peekstok, Ojin Tegus, Ekkes Brück, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract: The present work investigates the influence of phosphorus addition on the size distribution of retained austenite in TRIP steels containing 0.01%, 0.09% and 0.14% phosphorus. The size of retained austenite is measured by means of neutron depolarization technique and optical microscopy. It is found that the addition of phosphorous increases the size of the larger intergranular and inter-ferritic austenite grains and therefore also increases the volume fraction of retained austenite due to the strengthening effect of phosphorous on the surrounding ferrite and bainite grains. For all phosphorous additions the most frequently observed austenite size is around 0.2 μm, which is probably corresponds to the interlath film-type retained austenite. The average grain size from the neutron depolarization technique agrees in general with that from the optical microscopy and it is suggested that the accuracy can be improved by further development of the data analysis by taking into account the preferred shape and orientation of the austenite grains.
Authors: M.J. Merwin
Abstract: The development of TRansformation Induced Plasicity (TRIP) steels has seen much activity in recent years, due to the promise of very high formability combined with high strength. The accepted method for production of as-hot-rolled TRIP steel employs multistage runout table cooling and coiling in the bainitic transformation temperature regime. As an alternative to confronting the production difficulties the accepted strategy presents, a program was begun to evaluate the potential of 0.1C-6.0Mn steels processed in a more conventional manner. Three laboratory heats were melted to consider the effect of manganese content on processing and properties. The steels were found to be fully hardenable with conventional hot-strip mill processing and subsequent batch annealing simulations produced significant retained austenite levels. The combination of the prior martensitic microstructure in the as-hot-rolled condition, and austenite created during annealing, resulted in remarkable combinations of strength and ductility. In the as-hot-rolled condition, tensile strengths exceeding 1400 MPa were observed, with total elongations of approximately 10 percent. Optimum properties were found when samples were annealed at approximately 650°C. While this treatment reduced the tensile strength to 800-1000 MPa, the total elongation increased to between 30 percent and 40 percent. UTS*TE products exceeding 30,000 MPa-% were observed, making these materials attractive for high strength, high ductility applications.
Authors: Stéphane Godet, C. Georges, Pascal J. Jacques
Abstract: TRIP-assisted multiphase steels exhibit an excellent balance of strength and ductility, which makes them very attractive for the automotive industry. These remarkable mechanical properties can be attributed mainly to their composite-like microstructures and to the transformation of retained austenite into martensite during straining (Transformation-Induced Plasticity). The aim of this study is to highlight the interactions between the hot rolling conditions, the transformation of austenite and formation of the microstructure, and the resulting mechanical properties. Various rolling simulation techniques were employed to determine how the composite microstructure is formed during the various steps of multi-stage thermomechanical processing.
Authors: F. Fazeli, Matthias Militzer
Abstract: Using physical concepts, an integrated transformation model to describe the kinetics of ferrite and bainite formation from work-hardened austenite has been developed for a Mo-TRIP steel. The ferrite sub-model assumes a mixed-mode kinetics under paraequilibrium condition and accounts explicitly for the effect of alloying elements by considering their interaction with the moving ferrite-austenite interface. To predict the onset of bainite formation, which corresponds to the cessation of ferrite reaction along a given cooling path, a criterion based on a critical driving pressure is formulated. Regarding the kinetics of the subsequent bainite reaction, the proposed model adopts the Zener-Hillert diffusional approach. The proposed integrated model has been employed to describe the continuous cooling transformation kinetics for a 0.19C-1.5Mn-1.6Si- 0.2Mo (wt%) TRIP steel that had previously been subjected to a systematic experimental study. The predictive capabilities of the model and the challenges for further model improvements are delineated.
Authors: Claudio Guarnaschelli, P. Folgarait, E. Paravicini Bagliani, R. Demarchi, H. Desimone
Abstract: Steel pipes for hydraulic cylinders have to offer high strength levels and good toughness. A minimum value of 27 J at – 20 °C is typically requested. In this work, a comprehensive experimental activity based on both laboratory tests and industrial trials was performed in order to investigate the benefits related to the development of multi-phase microstructures in seamless pipes for hydraulic cylinders. The effect of these microstructures on strength and toughness were analyzed. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests showed that toughness increases monotonically with the increase of the intercritical temperature, i.e. when the carbon content of the newly formed austenite is reduced. Industrial trials were performed on tubes applying a proper inter-critical quenching. The product after cold drawing and stress relieving achieved high yield strength values and showed an excellent toughness, even at – 40°C, in both the transverse and longitudinal directions.
Authors: Masayuki Wakita, Yoshitaka Adachi, Yo Tomota
Abstract: This study aims at examining thermomechanical controlled process to realize ultrafine TRIP-aided multi-phase microstructures in low carbon steels. Heavy deformation at a supercooled austenite region was found to lead the formation of 2 μm ferrite as well as retained austenite with high volume fraction. The morphology of retained austenite was changed from film-like shape to granular shape with lowering finish rolling temperature in austenite field. This ultrafine TRIP-aided multi-phase steel showed good balance of tensile strength with total elongation, ie. 1080MPa and 26.9%. A novel in-situ neutron diffraction measurement demonstrated that the retained granular austenite transformed to martensite at a relatively large strain compared with the retained film austenite. The therein-underlying mechanism of the good mechanical properties was discussed from the view points of the morphological and thermodynamical stabilization of retained austenite.
Authors: Jiří Kliber, Gabriela Plestilova, Ondrej Zacek, Mahesh C. Somani
Abstract: Effects of hot-rolling conditions on these steels are much less studied than their importance for practice would suggest. It should be emphasized that bainite transformation is the key reaction to enrich non-transformed austenite with carbon. This study was carried out in order to gain understanding of the effect of thermomechanical hot rolling on final microstructure and mechanical properties of C-Mn-Si TRIP steel. Fundamental of the transformation induced plasticity effect – TRIP is the stabilization of substantial amount of retained austenite down to the ambient temperature by thermomechanical processing and its subsequent transformation into strain induced martensite as a consequence of applied plastic deformation. The special prepared stepped specimens were rolled on laboratory tandem mill. The effects of finish rolling temperature, strain and isothermal bainite transformation temperature on mechanical properties of mentioned TRIP steel were evaluated (mechanical properties were examined with tension test). Major deformation, higher finishing rolling temperature and higher temperature of bainite hold result in drop in strength. Proportionately to the drop in strength, the ductility grows in the TRIP steel. Microstructures were examined with X-ray diffraction (retained austenite). Image analysis software was used to process SEM micrographs of structure (ferrite, bainite assessment). Plastometric testing was conducted on GLEEBLE 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. First stage of experiment yielded stress-strain curves for various temperatures and strain rates. Gleeble 1500 was used for the remaining plastometric simulation. Specimens were reheated to austenitization temperature of 1100°C and soaked. Then they were cooled to the temperature of deformation and subsequently cooled at higher rate down to the bainitic transformation temperature (400 – 550 °C). Specimens were held at the bainitic transformation temperature and then air-cooled. Final microstructures were evaluated with respect to transformation diagrams and optical microscopy findings. Higher bainite volume fraction was found in the specimens cooled at higher cooling rate as compared with more slowly cooled specimens.

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