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Authors: H. Oettel, M. Glavatskikh, U. Martin, A. Nikulin
Abstract: The TRIP – effect in metastable austenitic steels is caused by a moderate local martensitic transformation, connected with an extraordinary increase e.g. of the uniform elongation in tensile testing. In this case the martensite formation causes an additional hardening effect, preventing the local deformation as well as damaging during plastic deformation. The main conditions of a marked TRIP – effect is a low flow stress in the undeformed state, a high strengthening exponent, a continuous transformation up to about 20 % martensite and a high resistance against damaging (e.g. crack formation and propagation). The martensite transformation starts in glide or shear bands and their crossings also at temperatures clearly above the conventional Md – temperatures, reducing the stress local concentrations and so preventing damaging. Furthermore, high martensite contents can be detected along the fracture path, indicating the hindering of the crack propagation by the transformation. To demonstrate the influence of damaging on the TRIP – effect the deviations from the so-called Considere-criterion for uniform elongation can be used. Related to the deformation the damaging under TRIP – conditions is minimal.
Authors: Yo Sep Yang, Jong Gu Bae, Chan Gyung Park
Abstract: In this study, the effects of drawing strain and annealing at low temperature on the mechanical properties have been investigated. The mechanical properties, such as hardness and strength and fatigue, were performed. The fatigue tests of hyper eutectoid steel wires were performed by the Hunter-type tester, specially designed for ultra thin wires (<0.2mmφ), under the bending stress. The mechanical properties of the steel wires increased with increase of annealing temperature, and the increase was more significant with higher drawing strain. Also, as annealing temperature increased, the hardness and tensile strength gradually increased up to 200 °C and then dramatically decreased at above temperature. However, bending fatigue limit, including fatigue life, showed the some different phenomena with increase of annealing temperature. These different behaviors depending on annealing temperature were discussed in terms of microstructural parameter changes such as pearlite morphology, rearrangement and coalescence of the dislocations.
Authors: Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz, Toshiyuki Hashida, Yutaka Watanabe, Tetsuo Shoji, Victor M. Lopez-Hirata
Abstract: Three types of austenitic stainless steels JK2, JJ1 and JN1 were isothermally aged at temperatures from 600 to 900°C for 10 to 1000 minutes in order to study the microstructural evolution and its effect on the fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The Charpy V-Notch fracture energy at 77 K showed a significant decrease with aging time in JJ1 and JN1 steels because of their higher contents of C and N. In contrast, the fracture energy corresponding to the aged JK2 steel decreased gradually with aging time. The abundant intergranular precipitation of carbides and nitrides seems to be the responsible for the fracture toughness deterioration in the aged JJ1 and JN1 steels. On the other hand, the intergranular precipitation of carbides was less abundant in the aged JK2 steel. The scanning electron microscope fractographs of the CVN test specimens corresponding to the aged JJ1 and JN1 steels showed mainly an intergranular brittle fracture and its fraction increased with aging time and temperature. In general, the presence of a more abundant intergranular precipitation resulted in a more rapid decrease in toughness with aging time.
Authors: Jan Olof Nilsson
Abstract: The evolution of microstructure during production and elevated temperature service of type 347 austenitic stainless steel in the temperature range 700-800°C was modelled using commercial software packages such as Thermo-Calc and DICTRA and characterized using various microscopical techniques. The growth and coarsening of niobium carbonitrides and σ- phase were modelled as well as nitrogen uptake. Good agreement between predictions and microstructural observations was found.
Authors: A. Ferreira Filho, C. Herrera, Nelson Batista de Lima, R.L. Plaut, Angelo Fernando Padilha
Abstract: The evolution of the crystallographic texture of ferritic stainless steels, starting from the as received (hot rolled) condition from the steel mill, going through cold rolling, annealing and final stamping is analyzed in this paper. Two ferritic stainless steels (Nb stabilized) having a thickness of 3.0 and 0.7mm, have been employed. The thicker one has been cold rolled to 40 and 73% thickness reduction, annealed at 750 and 850°C for 1 hour. The thinner one, with a similar composition, has been 77% cold rolled and annealed at 870°C at the steel plant and subsequently submitted to deep drawing in order to evaluate texture and drawability. Texture has been evaluated using DRX in the as received, cold rolled, annealed and after drawing conditions. Drawability has been evaluated using tensile testing in order to obtain the FLC curves. AISI 430 stainless steel, in the as received condition presented a strong {100} texture in the <110> and <120> directions and the gamma fiber. After cold rolling, the material presented stronger gamma and weaker alpha fibers. Annealing of the cold rolled samples conduced to the vanishing of the alpha and strengthening of the gamma fiber, adequate for deep drawing operations. In spite of the AISI 430 of 0.7mm having presented a strong gamma fiber, other deep drawing properties were not adequate and the material cracked during stamping.
Authors: Abbas Najafizadeh, John J. Jonas
Abstract: The kinetics of interpass softening and the strain (ε*) at which they become strain-independent were determined by means of double-hit hot compression tests. For this purpose, interrupted compression tests were conducted at strain rates of 0.01 and 0.1 s-1 to initial strains ranging from that corresponding to the initiation of DRX (εc) to the onset of steady state flow (εs.). Test temperatures between 1000 and 1100 °C (inclusive) were employed. Interpass times were varied from 0.3 to 1000 seconds. The fractional softening was determined using the 0.2% offset method. It is clear from the results that there is a transition strain (ε*) that separates the straindependent range of post-dynamic softening from the strain-independent range. The value of ε* obtained in this work was ε* = 4/3 εp. It was also found that the strain hardening rate was identical at all the critical strains (ε*) and took the value -22 MPa.
Authors: Priti Wanjara, Mathieu Brochu, Mohammad Jahazi
Abstract: The use of electron beam technology for freeforming 321 SS was investigated using 347 SS solid wire and BNi-2 brazing paste as filler materials. The electron beam freeforming (EBFF) studies involved examining the effect of processing parameters on the characteristics of the line build-ups. Specifically, the effective growth rate and the dimensional features (height-to-width ratio) of the build-ups were found to be dependent on the beam energy and the filler material conditions (e.g. wire feed rate and the number of re-melting passes). The EBFF work indicated that build-ups with either filler material could be deposited on 321 SS using an optimized processing window that resulted in properties comparable to technical data available for 347 SS and BNi-2.
Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Hwan Jin Sung
Abstract: Thermal fatigue is a complex phenomenon encountered in materials exposed to cyclically varying temperatures in the presence or absence of external load. Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require immediate investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 304 and 429EM stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Thermal fatigue property of STS 304 was superior to that of STS 429EM. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.
Authors: Toshihiro Tsuchiyama, N. Hirakawa, Nobuo Nakada, Setsuo Takaki
Abstract: The nickel-free austenitic stainless steel produced by solution nitriding (Fe-25%Cr-1%N alloy) was subjected to isothermal heat treatment, and then the microstructure formed through the decomposition of austenite was investigated in terms of the morphology of eutectoid structure and the size of eutectoid block. On the isothermal heat treatment at 873K~1223K for the solution-nitrided steel, the austenite decomposed to eutectoid structure composed of ferrite and Cr2N nitride. This transformation could be completely finished after long time heat treatment in the above temperature range. The nose temperature of T.T.T. curve was around 1173K, and the time to start the eutectoid transformation was only 100~200s. The eutectoid structure was formed mainly along austenite grain boundaries and then grew into the untransformed austenite region. Finally, the austenite was completely decomposed into ferrite and Cr2N nitride. As a result of OIM observation for the specimen after isothermal heat treatment, the eutectoid structure was found to be divided into small-sized ferrite blocks, in which lamellar Cr2N plates were finely distributed. The block size and the mean ferrite path of eutectoid structure were decreased with lowering the heat treatment temperature. In the 873K heat-treated material, these values were estimated at 20 microns and 0.1 microns, respectively.
Authors: Hans Berns, Sascha Riedner, A. Tyshchenko
Abstract: The solubility of nitrogen is high in stainless austenite of steels with 18 mass% of Cr and Mn each, but low in the melt. Carbon reveals the opposite behaviour. Instead of producing high nitrogen steels by pressure metallurgy (PHNS), about 1 mass% of C+N is dissolved in the melt at ambient pressure. The new cost-effective C+N steel reaches a yield strength of 600 MPa, a true fracture strength above 2500 MPa and an elongation above 70 %. Conduction electron spin resonance revealed a high concentration of free electrons. Thus, the ductile metallic character of the C+N steel is enhanced, explaining the high product of strength and toughness.

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