Recrystallization and Grain Growth III

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Authors: Sang Yeup Park, Jun Ho Song, Young Jin Cho
Abstract: The nucleation and growth behavior of magentoplombite has been observed during the abnormal grain growth in the presence of liquid phase. Abnormal grain growth was explained in terms of grain orientation due to liquid phase. It has been observed that the nuclei formation for abnormal grain growth was driven by the capillary force due to the liquid phase. Because magnetoplumbite crystal structure has an anisotropic crystal nature, abnormal grain growth with faceted grain shape was observed depending on its chemical composition. The formation of nuclei and particle orientation was important for the occurrence of abnormal grain growth.
Authors: Z. Horita, Kaoru Kishikawa, Keiichi Kimura, Kohei Tatsumi, Terence G. Langdon
Abstract: Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a valuable technique for refining grain sizes to the submicrometer or the nanometer range. This study explores the reason for the difference in the grain refining behavior between pure Al and pure Cu. First, very high purity levels were adopted in order to minimize any effects of impurities: 99.999% for Al and 99.99999% for Cu. Second, high purity (99.999%) Au was also used in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy. All three pure metals were subjected to ECAP and microstructural observations and hardness measurements were undertaken with respect to the number of ECAP passes. It is concluded that the stacking fault energy plays an important role and accounts for the difference in the grain refining behavior in the ECAP process.
Authors: J.H. Seo, Jong Kweon Kim, Yong Bum Park
Abstract: The texture evolution due to grain growth that takes place during annealing was investigated in nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloys fabricated by using an electroforming method. In the current materials, the as-deposited textures were of fibre-type characterized by strong <100>//ND and weak <111>//ND components, and the occurrence of grain growth during annealing resulted in the strong development of the <111>//ND components with a significant decrease of the <100>//ND components. It was clarified that abnormal grain growth plays an important role on the evolution of the microstructures and textures. The abnormally grown grains were observed using orientation imaging microscopy in the early stages of grain growth, and their morphological features have been discussed.
Authors: Cheng Xu, Z. Horita, Terence G. Langdon
Abstract: It is now well-established that processing through the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD) leads to a significant reduction in the grain size of a wide range of metallic materials. This paper examines the fabrication of ultrafine-grained materials using high-pressure torsion (HPT) where this process is attractive because it leads to exceptional grain refinement with grain sizes that often lie in the nanometer or submicrometer ranges. Two aspects of HPT are examined. First, processing by HPT is usually confined to samples in the form of very thin disks but recent experiments demonstrate the potential for extending HPT also to bulk samples. Second, since the strains imposed in HPT vary with the distance from the center of the disk, it is important to examine the development of inhomogeneities in disk samples processed by HPT.
Authors: K.S. Choi, Y. Choi, Hirofumi Inoue
Abstract: Copper-silver quasi-nano filamentary composites prepared by hot isostatic pressing followed by heavy drawing were irradiated in CT hole of a domestic experimental nuclear reactor, HANARO to study the morphological change of the poly-crystalline nano-filaments with irradiation and annealing conditions. The irradiation was carried out for 36 days at 320 o C with the maximum neutron flux of 4.8x10 20 n/cm 2 (E>1.0 MeV). The gamma heating rate was in the range of 2.0-6.45 W/gm. Polycrystalline silver nano-filaments of the composites were equilibrium shape like the faceted sphere shape. Annealing results in the increase of the faceting rate of the irradiated specimen. Nano-indentation results supported that the morphology change of nano-filaments by annealing in this study is more effective on strength change of the irradiated nano-filamentary composites than irradiated hardening.
Authors: Børge Forbord, Ragnvald H. Mathiesen, Hans Jørgen Roven
Abstract: In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been applied in order to study grain growth in an ultra-fine grained (D~400 nm) 6060 aluminium alloy at 270°C. The submicron grain structure was produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) to an effective strain of ~6 without rotation of the billet. As the material was textured after ECAP, the initial stages of grain growth were seldom detected, but in the grain size interval available for studies a grain growth exponent of 3.6±0.3 was obtained. By interpolation of the grain growth curves to D=D0 (determined by EBSD) the effect of growth on the softening of the alloy was estimated. The interpolated average curve indicates that the initial stages of softening are not due to uniform grain growth, but rather reconfiguration and annihilation of dislocations as well as overaging of hardening precipitates.
Authors: Hiroshi Fujiwara, Yasuro Iwahashi, K. Ohta, Kei Ameyama
Abstract: Mechanical Milling (MM) is a Severe Plastic Deformation - Powder Metallurgy (SPD-PM) process which enables to produce a nano grain structure. A BCC layer with a nano grain structure appeared in the vicinity of the MM powder surface. Conventional cold work at room temperature never induces a strain-induced-martensitic-transformation in the SUS310S stainless steel. Therefore, a BCC layer formation from austenitic matrix is a specific phase transformation, and is attributed to the rise of the grain boundary energy by the nano grain formation. The hardness of this surface layer has approximately 540Hv, while that of the inner area has about 290Hv. As the MM powder anneals at 333K for 300s, the hardness of surface and inner area decreases to approximately 470Hv and 280Hv, respectively. Result of such a large hardness decrease in the surface of MM powder after annealing at near the room temperature indicates an existence of a huge number of defects, such as vacancy and interstitial atom, by the SPD-PM Process.
Authors: T. Fukumaru, T. Inoue, Toshihiro Tsuchiyama, Setsuo Takaki
Abstract: It is well known that the ultra grain refinement can be achieved by sever cold rolling, followed by reversion treatment in metastable austenitic stainless steel plate. In this study, the cold rolling was replaced by cold drawing. This procedure was applied to a metastable austenitic steel (Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy) thin wire, and then the microstructure development during cold drawing and annealing was investigated. The austenite phase transformed to martensite during the drawing. Vickers hardness of the wire markedly increased with increasing the drawing strain. When the drawing strain reached about 4.5, the wire exhibited martensite single structure and had high hardness of Hv4.4GPa. Annealing of the heavily drawn wire at around 900K for 0.6ks leads to the formation of reversed austenite with the diffusional reversion mechanism. As a result, ultra fine-grained austenitic single structure with the grain size of about 0.6μm was obtained. It was also found that the wire has an excellent combination of a strength and ductility.
Authors: Seong Min Hong, Cheol Gi Kim, Chong Oh Kim
Abstract: The magnetic and structural properties of FINEMET [Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 wt %] amorphous powder were investigated after nitrification and mechanical milling. Fe-based amorphous powder were nitrified and crystallized simultaneously at 550°Cusing by ammonia(NH3) gas. Nitrified powder exhibited iron nitride phase such as γ′-Fe4N, Fe3N and α″-Fe16N2. Nitrified particles were more brittle than raw particles. As a result, nanometer sized nitride powder were fabricated by high energetic ball milling method. The saturation magnetization(Ms) and coercivity(Hc) of nitrified powder were increased due to nitride phase.

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