Silicon Surface Preparation and Passivation by Vapor Phase of Heavy Water
The well known wet chemical treatments of the silicon surface and its native oxidation in air cause a high density of interface states, which predominantly originate from dangling bonds strained bonds or from bonds, between adsorbates and silicon surface atoms. Therefore, a number of wet-chemical treatments have been developed for ultraclean processing in order to produce chemically and electronically passivated surfaces . The saturation of dangling bonds by hydrogen removes the surface states and replaces them by adsorbate-induced states, which influence the surface band-bending . The first thermal hydrogen desorption peak from a hydrogen passivated Si surface in vacuum or inert gas ambient can be detected at around 380°C [3,4]. Simultaneously the combination of the hydrogen atoms of neighboring dihydrides generates a pair of dangling bonds. At around 480-500°C dangling bonds are generated on the silicon surface by desorption of the remaining hydrogen . At that moment the silicon surface becomes extremely reactive.
Paul Mertens, Marc Meuris and Marc Heyns
A. E. Pap et al., "Silicon Surface Preparation and Passivation by Vapor Phase of Heavy Water ", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 145-146, pp. 181-184, 2009