Near-Surface Depth Profiling of Solids by Mono-Energetic Positrons

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Authors: Gerhard Brauer
Abstract: Some personal remarks on scientific poetry in general are presented together with a little poetry collection, in particular about the positron and its fate.
Authors: Bichitra Nandi Ganguly
Abstract: This article deals with the insight of using the positron (the simplest antimatter) as an entity that non-destructively probes material structure to the extent of atomic size defects, also describes the tools that have been in practice in recent times and in the front line activities. It also guides the reader on the use of (monoenergetic) slow positron beams that are currently available to study surface/ near surface structural details of various advanced materials. In addition, the bound state of electron and positron (positronium) is touched upon along with various conjectures for harnessing such species and utility of such light quasi-stationary states have been included. A brief mention has been made on the application of positrons towards medical diagnostic aspects and its recent importance in an astrophysical context.
Authors: Wolfgang Anwand, Gerhard Brauer, Maik Butterling, Hans Rainer Kissener, Andreas Wagner
Abstract: On the basis of the design and construction of the slow positron beam SPONSOR at the Helmholtz-Centre Dresden-Rossendorf an example is given how to build-up a simple slow positron beam for solid surface investigations within a short time and without high financial costs. The system uses a 22Na source and consists of three main parts: (1) the source chamber with a thin film tungsten moderator used in transmission, and a pre-accelerator stage, (2) the vacuum system with magnetic transport, a bent tube for energy selection and an accelerator, (3) the sample chamber with a sample holder, Ge detectors and (4) facilities for remote control and data acquisition. These parts are described in detail. The paper is preferentially addressed to beginners in the field of slow positron beam techniques and other readers being generally interested in positron annihilation spectroscopy.
Authors: Andreas Wagner, Wolfgang Anwand, Maik Butterling, Thomas E. Cowan, Fine Fiedler, Mathias Kempe, Reinhard Krause-Rehberg
Abstract: A new type of a positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) system has been set up at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE [ at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In contrast to existing source-based PALS systems, the approach described here makes use of an intense photon beam from electron bremsstrahlung which converts through pair production into positrons inside the sample under study. The article focusses on the production of intense bremsstrahlung using a superconducting electron linear accelerator, the production of positrons inside the sample under study, the efficient detector setup which allows for annihilation lifetime and Doppler-broadening spectroscopy simultaneously. Selected examples of positron annihilation spectroscopy are presented.
Authors: Jakub Čížek, M. Vlček, F. Lukáč, O. Melikhova, I. Procházka, W. Anwand, M. Butterling, A. Wagner, Gerhard Brauer
Abstract: A digital spectrometer for low background gamma ray spectroscopy equipped with two high purity Ge detectors and a 12-bit two channel digitizer was employed for the investigation of positron annihilation-in-flight. Measurements were performed for positrons emitted by 68Ge/68Ga and 22Na radioisotopes and annihilated in Cu and Mg targets. The contribution of the two-quantum positron annihilation-in-flight was clearly resolved in coincidence two-dimensional gamma ray energy spectra. The contribution of positrons annihilated in flight has a hyperbolic shape described well by the relativistic theory.
Authors: Brian E. O'Rourke, N. Oshima, A. Kinomura, T. Ohdaira, R. Suzuki
Abstract: Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is an experimental technique whereby the lifetime spectrum of positrons injected into a material is measured. Analysis of this spectrum can be used to characterize defects in the material. While radioisotope positron sources are often used for PALS, there are several advantages of using mono-energetic, slow positron beams. In order to measure lifetime spectra with such beams it is necessary to produce a pulsed beam with an extremely short pulse length (~ 200 ps). In this article we discuss the advantages of using pulsed, slow-positron beams, the various methods of beam production and pulsing methods. We focus in particular on intense beams generated by electron accelerators and describe the current status and future plans for the accelerator based facility at AIST.
Authors: S. May Tal Beck, Wolfgang Anwand, Andreas Wagner, Gerhard Brauer, A. Beck, A. Ocherashvili, O. Hen, S. Haroush, Y. Eisen, D. Moreno
Abstract: A study of irradiation-induced damage in HAVAR® foils was initiated in order to extract the highest proton dose the foils can sustain. The lattice structure of HAVAR® foils in different metallurgic conditions is presented, as well as visible internal structure, measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to investigate these foils, and another foil that had been irradiated to the maximal proton dose limit, set by the manufacturer to a total charge of 1 mAh (= 3.6 C). PAS techniques included Doppler broadening (DB) measurement in the SPONSOR beam and lifetime (LT) measurements, both carried at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Both positron spectroscopy methods show clear differences between the investigated foils, with distinguished characteristics for annealed, cold-rolled and irradiated foils. The advantages of using a slow positron beam to study thin foils and defect profiles, over a table-top LT spectrometer, are discussed and demonstrated by the HAVAR® measurements.
Authors: Jakub Čížek, I. Procházka, J. Kuriplach, W. Anwand, Gerhard Brauer, T.E. Cowan, D. Grambole, H. Schmidt, W. Skorupa
Abstract: Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated before and after exposure to remote H-plasma. Defect characterization has been made by two complementary techniques of positron annihilation: positron lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening. The high-momentum parts of the annihilation photon momentum distribution have been calculated from first principles in order to assist in defect identification. The positron annihilation results are supplemented by Atomic Force Microscopy for characterization of the crystal surface. It was found that virgin ZnO crystal contains Zn-vacancies associated with hydrogen. H-plasma treatment causes a significant reduction in concentration of these complexes. Physical mechanism of this effect is discussed in the paper.
Authors: G. Amarendra, S. Abhaya
Abstract: Depth resolved positron beam results of Si and metal silicides are highlighted in terms of identifying the nature of vacancy defects in amorphous and disordered Si and phase transformation and defect evolution as a consequence of silicide formation, respectively.

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