Abstract: Abstract. This paper shows the evolution of the surface crack front in prestressing steel wires subjected to fatigue in air and to corrosion-fatigue in Ca(OH)2+NaCl. To this end, a numerical modelling was made on the basis of a discretization of the crack front (characterized with elliptical shape), considering that the crack advance at each point is perpendicular to such a front according to a Paris-Erdogan law, and using a three-parameter stress intensity factor (SIF). Each analyzed case (a particular initial crack geometry) was characterized by the evolution of the semielliptical crack aspect ratio (relation between the semiaxes of the ellipse) with the relative crack depth and by the variation of the maximum dimensionless SIF at the crack front
Abstract: The propagation characteristic of Lamb waves activated by Piezoelectric actuators and collected by sensors in a stiffened panel has been investigated. A network of actuators is used to scan the structure before and after the presence of damage. A diagnostic imaging algorithm has been developed based on the probability of damage at each point of the structure measured by the signal reading of sensors in the benchmark and damaged structure. A damage localization image is then reconstructed by superimposing the image obtained from each sensor-actuator path. Three-dimensional finite element model with a transducer network is modeled. Damage is introduced as a small softening area in the stiffened panel. Applying the imaging algorithm, the damage location was predicted with good accuracy. This method proves to be suitable for stiffened panels, where the complicated geometry and boundary reflections make the signal processing more complicated.
Abstract: In this paper, we explored the relationship between thermal aging and the residual stresses developed within a thermal barrier coating (TBC) and the underlying thermally grown oxide (TGO). Superalloy model specimens (CMSX4) with a curved geometry designed to simulate key features of turbine blades coated with air plasma sprayed (APS) 7 wt.% Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2 applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat were oxidised in the temperature range 900°C to 975°C for various lengths of time. Stress measurements on both the TBC and the underlying TGO were made at positions of known curvature using Raman and photo-stimulated piezo-luminescence spectroscopy (PLPS). The residual stress values reflect the interaction between TGO and TBC, which has the potential to be used as an indicator of service lifetime. The results are discussed with respect to the origin of the stress changes and the long term integrity of the coating.
Abstract: Fatigue failures of rails often occur at the rail foot, since the geometry of this zone gives rise to stress concentrations under service loads or defects during rail manufacture and installation. In this paper, the fatigue behavior of cracks at the web/foot region of a rail is analyzed numerically. Analytical models in the literature for a semi-elliptical surface crack in a finite plate assume that the geometry of the front remains semi-elliptical during the whole propagation phase and the ellipse axes do not undergo translations or rotations. Fatigue tests show that this is not the case for such cracks in rails. A predictive model for crack growth has been developed by assuming an initial small crack at one probable initiation point between the web and foot of the rail in reference to a service condition loading. SIF values have been estimated by means of the finite element method and the plastic radius correction. The results attained were compared with crack growth experimental data.
Abstract: The premature failure of a blade occurred after a service life of 8127 EOH operation houre. This paper presents the fracture analysis of the first stage blade through fractographic and mechanical analysis. Crack growth mechanisms were evaluated based on the microscopic observations of the fracture surfaces by SEM. The analysis of the different region of the fracture surface shows that crack propagation is mainly related with fatigue mechanism. The crack propagation occurred in the pressure-suction side direction. The dynamic characteristics of the blade were evaluated by FEM in order to identify the cause of blade failure. The result depicts that the second mode of vibration might be excited and the vibratory stresses cause to HCF damage of the blade. Eventully fracture analysis of the blade under the presence of a fatigue crack was analyzed by FRACNC3D software.
Abstract: The effect of shot-peening on the uniaxial fatigue behaviour of four engineering steels, heat treated to a similar final hardness was investigated. Forged 0.39%C and 0.72%C steels, a quenched and tempered 0.51%C steel and a 0.50%C powder forged (PF) steel were fatigue tested under fully reversed (R=-1) push-pull loading conditions. Following long life (107) cycling, shot-peening had little effect on the fatigue limit of the 0.39%C and 0.72%C steels whereas the fatigue limit of the PF steel increased 10.4%. Conversely, the fatigue limit of the quenched and tempered steel decreased 12.0% after shot-peening. The results showed that the beneficial effects of shot-peening, such as compressive residual stresses and work hardening, balanced the effects of surface roughness since crack initiation tended to occur below the surface. Microhardness profiles showed that the greatest amount of cyclic softening in the shot-peened regions occurred in the hot rolled steels. Softening was accompanied by a decrease in the depth of surface hardness.
Abstract: New ballistic protection systems based on alternative materials have been recently developed. One of the industry’s objectives is to develop lighter and stronger defensive systems, which allow higher mobility and safety for both vehicles and humans. This work studies the behavior of an aerospace protection against a projectile impact, seeking an optimized construction. The Al-Qureshi et al. model suggests a ceramic-metal layer system and describes its behavior. The literature shows, due to the considered parameters, the erosion tax and the loss of velocity. The phenomenon is described in steps, presenting particular effects for each. The equations are not equal between the stages showing different properties. The present work searches for a solution that can show the expression for mass and velocity, for each stage of the phenomenon. The results from the numerical method used were plotted and analyzed. The treatment was performed using Maplesoft Maple software. As a result, graphs were generated, which allow a deeper analysis of the model. Finally, advance in the knowledge of fracture processes in materials by high velocity impact can be concluded. This fact permits developments in materials that can perform shock absorption.
Abstract: This paper shows that mesh density dependency in brittle element lattice models cannot be completely removed by incorporating material mesostructure. This is concluded as a result of a series of simulations of fracturing in concrete using a 2D rigid-body-spring network. In the case of notched beams loaded in three-point-bending (TPB), adding finer grain structure led to a significant reduction in the dependency of the peak force on the mesh density. However, the energy dissipated during the fracture simulation was still affected significantly by the mesh density.
Abstract: Thin plate structures are common in many industrial products and in particular they can be found as skins in sandwich panels. In order to develop complex FE analysis which involve the damage of these structures, it’s crucial the knowledge of constitutive law and damage criterion of the material they are made. In this paper a complete characterization of both constitutive material law and damage criterion for very thin rectangular Al2024-T3 aluminum alloy specimen plate has been done. The specimens have been cut, using a water jet machine, directly from sandwich panel skins in order to take into account the modification of mechanical behavior due to the manufacturing process. A complete experimental campaign of tensile tests has been done and an accurate virtual testing methodology has been subsequently applied (by means on Finite Element Models) in order to numerically reproduce the tests. The calibration of a fitted constitutive law and of three ductile failure criteria allows the numerical model to reproduce the experimental tests with good agreement up to failure.