Annealing Behavior of Defects in Multiple-Energy Nitrogen Implanted ZnO Bulk Single Crystal
Multiple-energy nitrogen ions (energies:1 to 100 keV and a net concentration:2.24 x 1020 cm-3) are implanted into ZnO bulk single crystals grown by the hydrothermal method. Rutherford backscattering-channeling studies show the presence of displaced Zn atoms (Zni) of about 4 % in as-implanted samples. An A-emission band related to the interstitial oxygen (Oi) is observed at 580 nm in 600 oC-annealed samples, and a new emission appears at 515 nm in 800 oC-annealed samples. It is proposed that the new emission band consists of the superposition of the green band (~525 nm) observed in unimplanted ZnO and the residual A-emission band. In 800 oC-annealed samples, a band to acceptor transition at 3.26 eV is also observed in addition to a donor to acceptor pair transition, suggesting that nitrogen acceptor is located at about 180 meV above the valence band. A thermally stimulated current peak, P1 (165 meV), which has been attributed to a native point defect, observed in unimplanted samples almost disappears in nitrogen-implanted samples annealed at 800 oC.
Akira Suzuki, Hajime Okumura, Tsunenobu Kimoto, Takashi Fuyuki, Kenji Fukuda and Shin-ichi Nishizawa
K. Kuriyama et al., "Annealing Behavior of Defects in Multiple-Energy Nitrogen Implanted ZnO Bulk Single Crystal", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603, pp. 1361-1364, 2009