Abstract: A new type of smart sensor based on metal-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is presented. DLC coatings are widely used as protective coatings to improve the surface properties of objective materials; for example, to increase hardness and chemical stability. With the addition of metal clusters into DLC coatings, electrical conduction appears to depend on the microstructure. Such coatings can be used in fabricating resistive sensors. In this paper, we present tungsten-containing DLC (W-DLC) as a possible strain sensor. The strain sensitivity is greatly affected by the deposition condition. We also fabricate a double-layered DLC/W-DLC coating. The double-layered structure is expected to be used as a smart coating having functionality as a sensor with a protective DLC overcoat.
Abstract: To clarify the influence of internal pulsed current upon the sintering behavior of powder materials during spark plasma sintering processing, simultaneous measurement of internal current using magnetic probe was carried out. Magnetic probe is installed to the side of the sintering ZnO powder material through the carbon graphite sintering die, and detects the magnetic field generated by internal current which flow through the specimen. By magnetic probe measurement, the internal current that flows through the specimen during SPS process was several hundred ampere, and the ratio of the internal current to the total current was found to be dependent on the electrical conductivity, diameter of powder material and the progress of SPS process. The measurement and estimation of an internal pulsed current using a magnetic probe in the specimen is very useful for in situ observation of the sintering behavior during the SPS process.
Abstract: Diamond-particle-dispersed copper (Cu) matrix composites were fabricated from Cu-coated diamond particles by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the microstructure and thermal properties of the composites fabricated were examined. These composites can well be consolidated in a temperature range between 973K and 1173K and scanning electron microscopy detects no reaction at the interface between the diamond particle and the Cu matrix. The relative packing density of the diamond-Cu composite increases with increasing sintering temperature and holding time, reaching 99.2% when sintered at a temperature of 1173K for a holding time of 2.1ks. Thermal conductivity of the diamond-Cu composite containing 43.2 vol. % diamond increases with increasing relative packing density, reaching a maximum (654W/mK) at a relative packing density of 99.2%. This thermal conductivity is 83% the theoretical value estimated by Maxwell-Eucken equation. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites falls in the upper line of Kerner’s model, indicating strong bonding between the diamond particle and the Cu matrix in the composite.
Abstract: We used electron beam irradiation on a laminate molded Co-Cr-Mo bulk alloy to reduce the surface roughness and increase hardness. The accelerating voltage and beam current were 40 kV and 0.5~5.0 mA, respectively. Irradiation time for each dot was 0.1 ms and the distance between dots (dot pitch) was either 0.2 or 0.4 mm, which corresponded to a scanning speed of 200 or 400 mm/s, respectively. The roughness value, Ra, decreased to 0.3~0.45 m for a beam current of 1 mA and a dot pitch of 0.02 mm. The coarse grains present in the base alloy were refined to sizes of less than 1m by rapid solidification. An increase in the Knoop hardness from 470 HK for the base metal to about 550 HK was achieved by this technique.
Abstract: New Ti-based and Zr-based metallic wires for the future application as biomaterials were developed by arc-melting type melt-extraction method. Zr-based metallic glass wire, -Ti type Ti-Zr binary wire and -Ti type Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) wire show high tensile strength and good vending ductility. Zr-based metallic glass wire shows extremely high tensile strength over 1GPa and large elastic strain limit reached approximately 2%. Ti-Zr binary alloy shows high wire-shape forming tendency during melt-extraction, and high Ti concentration Ti90Zr10 alloy wire was obtained. TNTZ wire shows superior bending ductility and full ductility is achieved.
Abstract: Self healing of surface cracks is the most effective function to ensure the structural integrity for ceramic components, because even minute surface crack give rise to a large strength decrease because of its high sensitivity to flaws. The present author and coworkers succeeded that the degraded strength due to cracking can be completely recovered by self crack healing ability driven by the high temperature oxidation of silicon carbide. Then, the mechanism and the effect of the self-healing were investigated. The most attractive feature of the self healing is to be able to respond to the damage caused during service. Thus, enhancement in self healing velocity has been necessary to actualize the self healing ceramics. In the present study, nanometer sizing the disperse silicon carbide particle was attempted to achieve the purpose. Alumina composites containing various shapes of silicon carbide nanometer sized particles were synthesized from mullite, aluminum and carbon powders. From the strength recovery behaviors of these alumina/ silicon carbide composites, the following aspects were derived. Silicon carbide particles nanometer sizing can heal completely the surface cracks at lower temperature and shorter time.
Abstract: Effect of TiB2 substitution on thermal conductivity and hardness in TiC / Fe-Al cermets was investigated. The (70-x)TiC / xTiB2 / 26Fe-4Al mass % cermets were fabricated by mechanical milling and subsequent pulsed current sintering method. The high relative density compacts was formed by sintering at 1423 K under 25 MPa for 60 s. The sintered materials were mainly composed of TiC, TiB2 and Fe-Al intermetallic compound. In addition, small amounts of Fe2B surrounding TiB2 were formed. The thermal conductivity of the sintered compact lineally increased with increasing TiB2 volume fraction. However, the hardness of the sintered compacts of x = 20 – 40 were higher than that of x = 0. Therefore, the substitution of TiC to TiB2 in the TiC / Fe-Al based cermet is effective to improve the thermal conductivity without the degradation of hardness.
Abstract: This paper describes evaluation of the strength in Ag-Sn-jointed Si specimens heated by Al/Ni film’s exothermic reaction. The reaction generates heat enough to melt Ag-Sn film for soldering. To measure the strength, four-point micro-bending test technique has been developed. The rectangular-solid Si specimens having a Ag-Sn/AlNi/Ag-Sn section were prepared by dicing the bonded Si-wafer under various pressure loads. A higher pressure yielded a better contact condition between Al/Ni and Ag-Sn so that heat-conduction improved; consequently Ag-Sn was melted sufficiently. Al/Ni reactive film has a potential as a micro-heater in soldering for MEMS.
Abstract: High-temperature oxidation resistance of Ni/Al2O3 nano-hybrid materials was described in this paper. Y2O3 doping and SiC co-dispersion in Ni/Al2O3 nano-hybrid materials are useful techniques to improve high-temperature oxidation resistance. On the other hand, nano-Ni/Al2O3 has the crack healing function by high-temperature annealing in air. SiC-Ni/Al2O3 nano-hybrid materials have similar crack healing performance with better oxidation resistance at high temperatures than Ni/Al2O3 nano-hybrid materials.
Abstract: (Zn,Mn)Te nanowires were grown via vapor-liquid-solid mode as test structures for spintronic applications. The structural and chemical properties of the nanowires were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. The nanowires contain much less stacking faults compared to ZnTe nanowires. This high structural perfection can be attributed to a rough liquid-solid interface as found by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The composition of the nanowires and, in particular, the Mn distribution is homogeneous. A ZnO cover layer forms after the growth of the nanowires.