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Authors: Marta López, M. Elena Gómez, David Reyes, K. Ramam, Ramalinga V. Mangalaraja, Pedro Prieto, José A. Jiménez
Abstract: Lower energy-ball milling was used to prepare magnetic granular Ni5CoXCu95-X alloys produced by mechanical alloying through a milling process and subsequent annealing process, have been investigated. The pure copper shows high electrical conductivity and malleability, however the Cu-Co system in the thermodynamic equilibrium is non-soluble below 500°C. Nevertheless, mechanical alloyed particles of Cu with 5-7%Co and 5%Ni can be subjected to annealing at 500°C or consolidation-sintering treatments to obtain composite materials thereby improving their mechanical and magnetic properties suitable for electronic devices. The ultrafine Co and (Co,Ni) particles reduced and dispersed in the copper powder matrix with milling times of 20 to 60 h and thus affected the magnetic properties of the as-milled Ni5CoXCu95-X powder obtained from this non-equilibrium phases synthesis. The magnetic properties of the supersaturated solid solutions are strongly dependent on the interactions among the magnetic particles and the nanometric size of these particles. The morphology, structure and size of as-milled and sintered powders were characterized by SEM, HRTEM and XRD techniques. The results show that the microstructure, hardness and magnetic properties of the granular Ni5CoXCu95-X alloy have strong dependence of milling time. The continuous decrement of Ms as a function of milling time is a consequence to the variation of phase in the composition with formation of CoNi particle and the partial change of fcc-Co to hcp-Co. Super-paramagnetic behavior is observed in both as-milled and annealed powders, with a maximum Hc of 250-260 Oe obtained for 7%Co after 60h of milling. The effect of Nickel on the Ni5CoXCu95-X can be explained as Ni content inhibit the two-solid (Cu-Co) phases segregation of the alloys when annealed at high temperature, leading to a grained structure with precipitated Co particles in homogeneous Cu-Ni strengthened solid solution matrix.
Authors: Priya A. Manohar
Abstract: A new approach is proposed in this paper that describes the development of flexible rolling technology in industrial processing of C – Mn and Low C - microalloyed steels. Scientific knowledge of industrially-significant processes for these materials is presently fragmented and scattered in published literature, which causes impediment to process innovation and optimization. In the current work, it is demonstrated that new process sequences could be developed by breaking down existing process routes in to key elements and then by recombining them to generate novel alternative and more efficient hot processing sequences. The proposed methodology establishes a platform for a more realistic assessment of existing process routes and the development of new hybrid process routes that combine ideas from alternative processes. This enables the identification of an optimal process sequence for specified steel compositions that also satisfies simultaneous design criteria such as process feasibility and property maximization. Application of the proposed algorithm in industrial-scale rod rolling of a medium C-Mn steel is demonstrated and discussed.
Authors: Priya A. Manohar
Abstract: This paper describes the failure investigation of a tubular shaft that is part of a hammer drill assembly. The failure investigation was particularly challenging as the fracture surfaces were completely damaged during and subsequent to the failure process. However, careful examination of the component and its assembly revealed many clues that pointed to the root causes of failure. It was determined that the shaft was subjected to impact, fatigue, bending and torsional loads simultaneously at elevated temperatures. The basic failure mode was identified as a combination of torsional fatigue and rotating bending fatigue failure that originated on the inside diameter of the shaft. The root causes were determined to be operational overload in combination with rough machining marks on the bore surface and higher than necessary operating torque required to overcome the dry adhesive friction in the system. The preventative measures recommended were many-fold including improving surface finish on the bore diameter, reducing dry sliding friction, decreasing the overall level of dynamic loads by appropriate design changes and adding a surface strengthening heat treatment
Authors: Yoshiyuki Nagatomo, Ryo Muranaka, Hiromasa Hayashi, Yoshirou Kuromitsu, Noriyuki Kuwano
Abstract: Al circuit substrates, which are composed of a sintered AlN plate and pure Al plate joined to both sides of the AlN plate, are used for semiconductor power devices. It is important to prevent fracture of the Al/AlN interface to ensure normal and stable device operation. In this study, the fracture process of Al/AlN interface during thermal cycling was investigated using advanced scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Al circuits joined to an AlN plate were plastically deformed with thermal cycling. Al grains were divided with the formation of sub-boundaries due to the plastic deformation. After 2000 thermal cycles, a crack was generated at edges of the Al/AlN interface and propagated gradually to the center of the substrate. Cross-sectional observation, using an angle selective backscattered electron detector (AsB), revealed that the Al grain size near the Al/AlN interface decreased to 3 m or less, and the crack proceeded along the Al grain boundaries. To clarify the temperature dependence of the fracture process, a repeated bending test was performed at various temperatures. Shear strains were induced at the Al/AlN interface by the repeated bending. The rate of crack propagation tends to be higher at higher temperatures for bending test. In substrates bent at 373 K or higher, the crack proceeded after the Al grains had been refined. These results indicate that fine-grained Al resulting from thermal cycling is formed by creep deformation and recrystallization at higher temperatures. Thus, improving the creep strength of the Al plate is thought to be effective for prevent cracking during thermal cycling. The effect of additive elements in the Al plate was also discussed in this study.
Authors: G. Pantazopoulos, Athanasios Vazdirvanidis, D.C. Papamantellos
Abstract: In the present paper, the investigation on low ductility failures occurred to ETP copper strips and connectors manufactured from cold stamping of copper tubes is presented. Optical microscopy, SEM/EDS for macro- and microfractography and local elemental analysis along with tensile testing were employed as the principal analytical techniques in the context of the present investigation. Casting defects and microstructural abnormalities associated to hydrogen induced cracking (H.I.C.) are the principal contributors of the examined failures.
Authors: Paulo Rangel Rios, Gláucio Soares da Fonseca
Abstract: Grain boundary pinning by particles is widely used to prevent grain growth during heat treatment in a variety of commercial alloys. Its practical relevance is matched by a considerable amount of theoretical work that has been devoted this problem. A key issue of boundary pinning is the particle/interface interaction mechanism and its associated pinning force. According to Ashby et al. an interface may interact with a particle in two ways: either it goes through the particles or, more usually, bends round and envelopes the particle. Based on these mechanisms one may derive quantitative expressions relating the characteristics of the particle dispersion and a critical or limiting grain radius. Thus, Zener expression assumes that the interface goes through the particles whereas Rios expression assumes that the interface bends round and envelopes the particle. Both the mechanisms and the resulting expressions are discussed here in detail and compared with available experimental data.
Authors: Zbigniew L. Kowalewski, Tadeusz Szymczak
Abstract: The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out on the P91 steel and 2024 aluminium alloy under complex stress states due to various combinations of an axial force and twisting moment. An influence of out-of-phase sinusoidal and trapezoidal strain signals on the mechanical behaviour of tested materials was considered. The experiments enabled identification of the second order effects connected with the non-proportional cyclic loadings such as the phase shift between stress and strain signals during the deformation along the circular strain path, and a significant stress drop of the one of loading components applied in the case of deformation enforced by the trapezoidal signals. The experimental programme also contained the tests of monotonic tensile deformation realized simultaneously with delayed torsional cycles. They enabled to observe a drastic variations of the proportional limit and yield point of the materials in the tensile direction. This fact manifests an important material feature which can be applied to the optimal designing of some metal forming processes like an extrusion or forging for example.
Authors: Ralf Kolleck, Robert Veit
Abstract: In general hot stamped car body parts show a uniform strength distribution. Especially for safety relevant parts with high requirements concerning crash performance, this uniform strength distribution can cause problems. During a crash a B-pillar e. g. can absorb more energy when the lower part is relatively flexible while the middle and upper part has to be high-tensile to prevent the intrusion into the passenger compartment. Also during the production of hot stamped parts, the high strength causes trouble. When the trimming takes place after the hardening process, the durability of the tool is limited. Thus at the moment the only economic process for trimming of ultra-high-strength steels is laser cutting. This paper presents different approaches to reach local different strength distributions in hot stamped components. In particular the results of a research project of the Institute Tools & Forming, Graz University of Technology are shown where precisely defined areas of different strengths could be obtained in one part. This was achieved by the use of simple and cheap ceramic inserts in conventional press hardening tools.
Authors: Ke Gang Wang, X. Ding
Abstract: The dynamics of phase coarsening at ultra-high volume fractions is studied based on two-dimensional phase-field simulations by numerically solving the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau and Cahn-Hilliard equations. The kinetics of phase coarsening at ultra-high volume fractions is discovered. The microstructural evolutions for different ultra-high volume fractions are shown. The scaled particle size distribution as functions of the dispersoid volume fraction is presented. The particle size distribution derived from our simulation at ultra-high volume fractions is close to Wagner's particle size distribution due to interface-controlled ripening rather than Hillert's grain size distribution in grain growth. The changes of shapes of particles are carefully studied with increase of volume fraction. It is found that more liquid-filled triple junctions are formed as a result of particle shape accommodation with increase of volume fraction at the regime of ultra-high volume fraction.
Authors: Yoichi Yamashita, Fumiyoshi Minami
Abstract: This paper studied the assessment method for welding residual stress effects and constraint loss effects on brittle fracture of structural component subjected to membrane stress. The methodology of CTOD fracture toughness correction for welded joints is proposed from lower to upper ductile-brittle transition temperature region. The methodology is based on the tensile plastic zone size criterion and the equivalent CTOD ratio derived from the Weibull stress criterion. It has been found that the proposed methodology has given the reasonable fracture assessment results.

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