Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites

Volumes 116-117

doi: 10.4028/

Paper Title Page

Authors: Michael Modigell, M. Hufschmidt
Abstract: Oscillation experiments, creep tests and shear stress ramps have been performed to analyze the yield stress and its time dependency. It has to be distinguished between iso-structural, dynamic and static yield stress. The iso-structural yield stress occurs immediately after shearing. Since the slurry structure remains unchanged, it is equivalent to the structure during shearing. At rest an internal structure builds up, this leads to an increase of the yield stress, which is referred to as the dynamic yield stress. It increases until its maximum value, the static yield stress, is reached.
Authors: Mathias Liewald, Peter Unseld, M. Schneider
Abstract: High mechanical properties in combination with low density are key features for lightweight constructions in automotive and aerospace applications. The combination between the innovative thixoforging process and the potential of fibre or particle strengthened composites with metallic matrices (MMCs) provides an efficient manufacturing process of structural components with continuous or gradient reinforcements. The scope of the Center of Competence for Casting and Thixoforging Stuttgart (CCT) contains new semi-solid manufacturing methods for metal matrix composites which have been developed and applied for patent pending. While previous research projects were focussed on fabrication of continuous fibre reinforced metal matrix composites, the local reinforcement insertion, located in the center of high force and torsion load zones, is going to be the next evolution step of the CCT research team. Therefore it is essential to verify, to simulate and to reproduce the process during infiltration of the semi-sold matrix metal into the textile layer experimentally. This paper illustrates investigations regarding the infiltration process of the thixotropic cast-alloys AlSi7Mg0.3 (A365) into laminated fibre woven fabrics by computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction analysis, taking account into specific manufacturing technology, the rheological behaviour of the alloy with special focus on infiltration behavior.
Authors: José A. Moreno, Konstantin von Niessen, Rainer Gadow
Abstract: Light-metal matrix composites with tailor-made fiber reinforcements offer a good balance between weight saving and high strength, a key feature for lightweight design in structural applications for the automotive and aerospace industry. Light-metal MMCs manufactured by thixoforging of thermally sprayed prepregs additionally exhibit superior mechanical properties of the matrix material as well as low fiber damage during infiltration of the reinforcement fabric. However, one of the difficulties during manufacturing of these materials is the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of matrix and fiber material. Different thermal expansions lead to the development of residual stresses during the cooling process that can deform the reinforcement fibers and hence, lead to a decrease of the mechanical properties of the reinforced component. Modeling by means of finite elements and numerical simulation is used in order to study parameter variations during the cooling procedure and to select an optimized process route. The modeling and simulation was performed in a collaborative work between the Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites, University of Stuttgart, and the Polytechnic University of Cartagena.
Authors: Heng Hua Zhang, Xian Nian Zhang, Guang Jie Shao, Luo Ping Xu, Yi Tao Yang, Bao Liang Sun
Abstract: The morphology of semi-solid alloy is one of the key influence factors on the rheological behavior of slurry during die filling and the mechanical properties of formed parts. However, it is difficult to study such effect due to hard controlling of morphology in semi-solid state. In this paper, a self-developed Searle-type viscometer was used to determine the rheological behavior of A356 aluminum alloy in different morphology, which was refined with the salts mixture of K2TiF6 and KBF4. The results indicated that the flow behavior of refined A356 alloy in the semi-solid state possesses obviously thixotropic behavior under isothermal shearing condition with less time to reach steady state and lower steady apparent viscosity as compared to that of the A356 alloy. During continuous cooling at a constant shearing rate, the apparent viscosity of refined A356 slurry in the same solid fraction decreased with the content of Ti. It is shown from quantitative image analysis that the primary α-Al grain in the refined alloy evolves from dendrites to rosettes or sphericitys, and then tends to be rounder and finer in higher Ti content. The mechanism of the influence of morphology on rheological behavior was also discussed in this paper.
Authors: Michael Modigell, Lars Pape, Horst R. Maier
Abstract: The investigation of the flow behavior of semi-solid steel alloys poses a great challenge by reason of high operation temperatures and the need of ceramic components for the measuring system. A high-temperature Couette rheometer has been developed to analyze flow properties of semi-solid alloys up to temperatures of 1500°C. In the present work the alloy under investigation is X210CrW12. Differently performed experiments clearly show its shear-thinning and time-dependent flow properties with a yield stress. This flow behavior is modeled using a Herschel-Bulkley approach where the experimental results achieved serve to identify model parameters.
Authors: Andreas Bührig-Polaczek, C. Afrath, Michael Modigell, Lars Pape
Abstract: Alloys of a specific microstructure exhibit a shear-rate history-dependent flow behaviour in the semi-solid state. Rheological studies have been carried out using various experimental techniques such as concentric cylinder rheometers of Couette or Searle type as well as capillary rheometers and parallel plate compression tests. With the Searle type rheometer and the capillary rheometer two different approaches of rheological measurement techniques are discussed and compared regarding advantages, potentials and its distinct characteristics. Experiments using the Searle type rheometer have been conducted under steady-state or oscillating conditions and have been used to verify time-dependency of step responses due to discontinuous or linear variances of the shear rate. These experiments provide all types of flow curve parameters as implemented in the numerical simulation. However the variances of the commonly used Couette and Searle type rheometers are limited to shear-rates which are significantly lower than that appearing in the technical thixo- or rheocasting processes. For that reason an additional experimental set-up with a horizontal slot capillary integrated in a shot-controlled high-pressure die-casting machine is used in order to examine flow properties at shear rate conditions similar to those in real thixocasting processes. After an initial examination of low temperature model alloys, such as PbSn15, the experimental set-up is then adjusted in order to obtain rheological data for light metal alloys such as Aluminium AlSi7Mg0.3. The Aluminium alloy is processed within each rheometer either as partially solidified or partially remelted in order to represent conditions of both, the conventional thixocasting and the lately introduced rheocasting process. Finally the appearance of physical phenomena which affects the accuracy of rheological experiments such as wall slip is considered for both types of rheometers.
Authors: H. Wang, X.D. Yao
Abstract: Computer simulation of semisolid structure formation is of significance in both understanding the mechanisms of the formation of such structure and optimization the solidification conditions for the required structure. A modified cellular automaton (mCA) model has been developed, which is coupled with macroscopic models for heat transfer calculation and microscopic models for nucleation and grain growth. The mCA model is applied to Al-Si alloys, one of the most widely used semisolid alloys. It predicts microstructure morphology and grain size during semi-solid solidification, and determines the effects of poring temperature and mould temperature on the final microstructure. The simulated results are compared with those obtained experimentally. The resulting simulations give some insight into the mechanisms about the semisolid structure formation in Controlled Nucleation process.
Authors: Jean Christophe Pierret, Ahmed Rassili, Pierre Cezard
Abstract: The behaviour of the semi-solid material is complex to simulate and many approaches are proposed in the literature to represent it. In this work, different constitutive equations are studied: the classical Northon-Hoff law, Joly and Merhabian’s one [1] and an innovative micromechanical model using homogenisation technique [2]. These constitutive equations have been implemented in the FE code Forge2® to simulate simple forming tests, such as compression and direct extrusion. The load-displacement curves using the three constitutive equations are compared in order to estimate their capabilities.
Authors: M. Shakiba, Hossein Aashuri
Abstract: The flow behavior of a semi-solid A356 alloy at high solid fraction was studied. The mushy zone was considered as an effective two-phase, so that the solid continuum can be compressible porous media, and the liquid phase interaction with the solid skeleton was of Darcy type. The semi-solid flow through the upsetting test was modeled in ABAQUS finite element method software. The Gurson yield criterion has been developed for the modeling process of the flow behavior of solid porous medium. Specimens were globulized by a thermomechanical process and then were tested for various percentages of upsetting. The distribution of solid fraction along the radius of the specimens at different height reduction showed a good correlation with model prediction.
Authors: Krzysztof P. Sołek, Zbigniew Mitura, Roman Kuziak, Plato Kapranos
Abstract: The main purpose of work was to develop a methodology of physical and numerical simulation of the thixocasting processes. For the purpose of the studies an experiment was conducted using a GLEEBLE 3800 simulator. In this work, the GLEEBLE 3800 system was adapted for physical simulation of the processes of light metal alloy forming in the solid-liquid state. The physical simulations of thixoforming processes and characterization of thixotropic materials were supported by computer simulations using ADINA software. The numerical model of thixoforming processes was developed in order to estimate values of the rheological model parameters.

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