Advanced Biomaterials VI

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Authors: Jin Wang, P. Li, H. Sun, Ping Yang, Y.X. Leng, Ji Yong Chen, Nan Huang
Abstract: We report a study involving chitosan chains immobilized on poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films by plasma and ultraviolet (UV) grafting modification. The surface structure of the modified PET is determined by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infraed spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the chains of chitosan are successfully grafted on the surface of PET. Platelet adhesion evaluation in vitro is conducted to examine the blood compatibility in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy reveal that the amounts of adhered, aggregated and morphologically changed platelets are reduced on the chitosan-immobilized PET films. The number of platelet adhered on the modified film is reduced by almost 48% compared to the amount of platelets on the untreated film. Our result thus shows that chitosan immobilized on the PET surface improves blood compatibility.
Authors: Peng Li, Jin Wang, W.C. Lu, H. Sun, Nan Huang
Abstract: Biomedical PET films were modified by the approach of chitosan-surface-grafting. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that chitosan molecules were successfully grafted on the PET surface. The bacterial adhesion on the modified surface was evaluated by bacteria plate counting in vitro and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results testified that chitosan did make the surface of PET become more antibacterial. The free energy of adhesion (∆Fadh) between the bacteria and the chitosan-immobilized surface of PET was calculated. The value of the ∆Fadh was positive, which suggests that the process of bacterial adhesion on the modified PET surface was not thermodynamically favorable, namely, not spontaneous.
Authors: Ping Yang, Guo Jiang Wan, X. Xie, Y.X. Leng, Hong Fang Zhou, Paul K. Chu, Nan Huang
Authors: Chang Jiang Pan, Jin Wang, H. Sun, Nan Huang
Abstract: In this paper, polyethylene glycol (PEG) of various different molecular weights was grafted onto PET films using plasma surface grafting modification. The surface structure of PEG-grafted PET films was analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), suggesting that the surface structure and composition of PET films changes due to the presence of PEG. Blood compatibility was characterized by in vitro platelet adhesion experiments and coagulation factors. The tests of platelet adhesion and coagulation factors in vitro suggest that PEG grafted onto polymer surfaces can improve the blood compatibility of PET films remarkably. The modified PET films were pre-coated with albumin and fibrinogen respectively; platelet adhesion tests in vitro then indicated that samples pre-coated with albumin have better blood compatibility than with fibrinogen, resulting in the conclusion that the albumin can improve blood compatibility. The contact angle of PEG-grafted films was measured by the sessile drop method and the surface free energy and interface free energy were induced. It is indicated that the PEG-grafted PET films have the characteristic of preferentially adsorbing albumin.
Authors: Yuehuei H. An, Melissa Farino, Qian K. Kang, Marina V. Demcheva, John Vournakis
Abstract: It is known that glucosamine/chitosan derivatives have the ability of inhibiting bacterial adhesion to tooth and biomaterial surfaces. The hypotheses of this article included 1) the inhibition effects of different (chemically) glucosamine products are different and 2) more water-soluble glucosamine preparation(s) may have a superior inhibition effect. The basic testing systems are in vitro static adhesion models and the amount of the adhesion is evaluated by direct counting using epifluorecense microscopy. The test material is a smooth surfaced commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti). The bacterium tested is Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that compared to the control samples (without glucosamine or chitosan coating) the sulfated p-GlcNAc and Sigma glucosamine HCl significantly inhibited S. aureus adhesion to titanium surfaces (94% and 78% respectively)
Authors: G. Mayer, N. Blanchemain, C. Dupas-Bruzek, M. Traisnel, D. Derozier, L.D. Laude, H.F. Hildebrand
Abstract: LASER Excimer irradiation can modify surface properties for biocompatibility improvement of a medical device. The PETs from 3 different origins were used in this study. The samples have been irradiated by excimer LASER with 10 different energies. The surface profile, the surface energy and the materials crystallinity have been assessed. Biological characterizations were made with human embryonic epithelial cells L132: proliferation, vitality, viability, adhesion with the p-NPP, and morphology. - The profile measurements allowed to establish the ablation threshold, which was 36 mJ/cm². The surface hydrophilic state increased reciprocally with the irradiation intensity. The gain is 13 %. The irradiated and non-irradiated product has identical cristallinity. PET was shown not to be toxic for L132 cells. Cell proliferation and cell vitality showed dose-dependant increases reciprocal to the irradiation energy (from 88 to 138% with respect to control). The correlation was highly significant (R² = 0,8). SEM micrographs show that the cells are better spread on the surface of irradiated PET than on untreated PET.
Authors: Qi Bin Liu, Long Jiang Zou, Min Zheng, Chuang Dong
Abstract: In the present paper, bioceramic coating with gradient compositional design was prepared on surface of Ti alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. Effect of rare earth Y2O3 content on gradient bioceramic composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicated that adding rare earth can refine grain. Different contents of rare earth affect formation of HA andβ-TCP in bioceramic coating. With increase of rare earth content, HA andβ-TCP were synthesized. When content of rare earth ranged from 0.4% to 0.6%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA andβ-TCP got best, which indicated that “monosodium glutamate” effect of rare earth played a dominant role. However, when rare earth content was up to 0.8%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA and β-TCP conversely went down, which demonstrated that rare earth gradually lost its catalysis in manufacturing HA andβ-TCP.
Authors: Y. Cao, Bo Zhang, Li Ping Wang, Qiang Lin, Xu Dong Li, C.Y. Bao, Ji Yong Chen, Bang Cheng Yang, L. Yang, Xing Dong Zhang
Abstract: Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on metal substrate was prepared. Two kind of post-treatment methods were been applied to the coating, treatment in air at 650°C for 30 min and treatment in water vapor at 125°C with a pressure of 0.15MPa for 6 hours. XRD showed that the HA nanocrystals increased after water vapor treatment. The interfacial tensile bond strength between HA and substrate was 45.0±1.82MPa, 39.1±1.27MPa and 30.3±1.61MPa for as-received coatings, water vapor treated coatings and heated in air coatings, respectively. 3 months after implantation in dogs limbs, the push-out strength between implants and bone was 11.27±2.71MPa, 11.63±3.11MPa, 23.92± 2.01MPa and 18.8± 1.82MPa for pure Ti implants, as-received coating implants, water vapor treated implants and heated in air implants, respectively. The results showed that the post-water vapor treated HA coating have better mechanical behavior in vitro and in vivo
Authors: Xuan Yong Liu, Chuan Xian Ding, Paul K. Chu
Abstract: In-vitro evaluation of plasma sprayed wollastonite and dicalcium silicate coatings was carried out by SBF soaking test and osteoblasts seeding test. Apatite layers were formed on the surfaces of the two coatings indicative of the excellent bioactivity. The formation rate of apatite is higher on dicalcium silicate than on wollastonite. The cause is believed to be the presence of orthosilicate species in the dicalcium silicate coating promoting easier leaching by exchanging H3O+ ions from the solution with calcium ions concentrated in the orthosilicate positions. At the same time, loss of soluble silicon occurs, and it is supposed to enhance the repolymerization of the silica gel layer and provide the active sites for the nucleation of apatite. The outcome is that apatite forms faster on dicalcium silicate than on wollastonite. The data obtained from the osteoblasts seeding test indicate that the wollastonite and dicalcium silicate coatings promote the proliferation of osteoblasts and possess excellent biocompatibility.
Authors: Yao Wu, Ji Yong Chen, Yu Mei Xiao, Bang Cheng Yang, Xing Dong Zhang
Abstract: It is very necessary to develop a real biomimetic compound coating of CaP with organic component and investigate quantitatively the effects of different bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration on the crystallite properties of the coprecipitated CaP layer. Bioactivated Ti was immersed in Ca-P solution with different BSA contents to obtain different biomimetic coating. The coatings were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). With the increase of BSA, the crystals on the coating grew more slowly but packed more closely. The preferential crystallographic direction of 002 of hydroxyapatite became less distinguishable and the crystallinity of the deposited hydroxyapatite decreased gradually. The crystallite sizes reduced with the addition of BSA proteins. Accordingly, when a certain content of BSA protein was added to the Ca-P solution, Ti surface would form a real biomimetic coating with the crystal size and crystallinity similar to the natural bone.

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