Fracture and Strength of Solids VI

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Authors: Q.Y. Wang, Hong Yan Zhang, S.R. Sriraman, S.L. Liu
Abstract: Magnesium alloys, on account of their lightweight, find useful applications in the automotive sector. During service, they experience very high number of fatigue cycles. Therefore, the understanding of their long life fatigue behavior becomes extremely important. This is possible by using ultrasonic fatigue testing, which is the only feasible way of doing it. In this study, the two such alloys viz. AE42 and AM60 has been investigated for their long life fatigue characteristics under fully reversed loading conditions, using a piezoelectric fatigue testing machine operating at a frequency of 20 kHz. The S-N data does not reach a horizontal asymptote at 107 cycles in either of the alloys. However, the alloy AM60 seems to show a fatigue limit at about at 109 cycles. The fractures examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were found to be brittle in character. In very high cycle fatigue conditions, the crack was found to initiate from the specimen subsurface.
Authors: Yan Qing Wu, Hui Ji Shi
Abstract: This study looks at the crack propagation characteristics based on the cohesive zone model (CZM), which is implemented as a user defined element within FE system ABAQUS. A planar crystal model is applied to the polycrystalline material at elevated temperature in which grain boundary regions are included. From the point of energy, interactions between the cohesive fracture process zones and matrix material are studied. It’s shown that the material parameter such as strain rate sensitivity of grain interior and grain boundary strongly influences the plastic and cohesive energy dissipation mechanisms. The higher the strain rate sensitivity is, the larger amount of the external work will be transformed into plastic dissipation energy than into cohesive energy which could delay the rupturing of cohesive zone. By comparisons, when strain rate sensitivity decreases, plastic dissipation energy is reduced and the cohesive dissipation energy increases. In this case, the cohesive zones fracture more quickly. In addition to the matrix material parameter, influence of cohesive strength and critical displacement in CZM on stress triaxiality at grain interior and grain boundary regions are also investigated. It’s shown that enhancing cohesive zones ductility could improve matrix materials resistance to void damage.
Authors: Masato Sato, Hideto Suzuki
Abstract: In this research, surface modification was given to CD (Carbide Dispersion)-carburized steel used for sliding parts of vehicles, and functional evaluation was performed. It developed the DLC-coating which has multi-layered structure according to a UBMS (UnBalance-Magnetron-Sputtering) process as aims at improvement in the tribological properties in the sliding parts for vehicles. In order to maintain the adhesion with parent material (CD-carburized steel), intermediate layer that gradient hardness was generated. Structure of multi-layered part was made into ten layers. The multi-layered part consists of soft layers and hard layers. A soft layer bears high-ductility and the hard layer bears wear resistance and tribological property. Moreover, as functional evaluation of coating material, it investigated about the friction wear characteristic and influence that a DLC-coating has on the fatigue characteristic.
Authors: Ki Weon Kang, Jung Kyu Kim, Yong Su Kim, Young Min Do
Abstract: The paper presents the fatigue behavior of carbon/epoxy laminates with impact-induced damage under 2-stage block loading. The impact damage parameter is proposed to evaluate the effect of impact damage on fatigue life. Based on this parameter, the model is developed to predict the residual life at second block. Also, the model for equivalent stress is proposed to estimate the fatigue life under 2-stage block loading based on the S-N curves under constant amplitude loading. For these models, the 2-stage block loading fatigue tests were performed on the impacted composite laminates. The effect of impact damage on fatigue life under 2-stage block loading can be characterized by the impact damage parameter. Additionally, the results by the present residual life prediction model agree with experimental results regardless of applied impact energy. Also, the equivalent stress and corresponding fatigue life by the present model agrees well with the experimental results.
Authors: Keum Oh Lee, Seong Gu Hong, Soon Bok Lee
Abstract: Isothermal cyclic stress-strain deformation and thermomechanical deformation (TMD) of 429EM stainless steel were analyzed using a rheological model employing a bi-linear model. The proposed model was composed of three parameters: elastic modulus, yield stress and flow stress. Monotonic stress-strain curves at various temperatures were used to construct the model. The yield stress in the model was nearly same as 0.2% offset yield stress. Hardening relation factor, m, was proposed to relate cyclic hardening to kinematic hardening. Isothermal cyclic stress-strain deformation could be described well by the proposed model. The model was extended to describe TMD. The results revealed that the bi-linear thermomechanical model overestimates the experimental data under both in-phase and out-of-phase conditions in the temperature range of 350-500oC and it was due to the enhanced dynamic recovery effect.
Authors: Tae Hee Lee, J.J. Jung
Abstract: To optimize a connecting rod satisfying fatigue life, metamodel-based design optimization is proposed. To approximately predict both volume and fatigue life of connecting rod, kriging metamodel is constructed based on maximin eigenvalue sampling. Fatigue analysis is accomplished for the calculation of fatigue life. The results of metamodel-based design optimization are compared with those of classical optimization. The advantages of metamodel-based optimization are discussed.
Authors: Gabriela Maria Atanasiu, N. Curcudel
Abstract: This paper presents the computational methodology for monitoring the performance of a damaged structure, this taking account of the deterioration revealed during the quality inspection aimed at ensuring the seismic serviceability. Several models have been considered in the analysis, the non-damaged and respectively damaged shear-wall structure in order to determine the degree of serviceability, the strength and stability of this edifice. The performance of the final proposed model after considering the rehabilitation is analyzed comparatively to the new and damaged structural model.
Authors: Sang Kwon Lee, Jang Sun Shim, Byung-Og Cho
Abstract: Impulsive vibration generated by localized gear damage can be used as an indicator for damage detection. Local damage induces an abrupt increase of the amplitude and phase lag of the impulsive vibration signal measured on the gearbox. Relatively large damage like “tip breakage” can be easily detected by the amplitude map of CWT (continuous wavelet transform) for the impulsive vibration signal measured on the gearbox. However, minor damage like “initial pitting” cannot be detected with the amplitude map. To overcome this problem, in this paper we take into account the phase map for a damage signal. The zoomed phase map of CWT is successfully applied to the detection of minor gearbox damage.
Authors: Sang Kwon Lee, Jinhoi Gu, Byung-Og Cho
Abstract: In an automotive engine, faults induce impulsive vibrations and thereby degrade engine performance, making it important for an automotive engineer to detect and analyze impulsive vibration signals for fault diagnosis. However, detecting and identifying impulsive signals is often difficult because of interfering signals such as those due to engine firing, harmonics of crankshaft speed and broadband noise components. These interferences hinder early fault detection. To overcome this difficulty we present a two-stage ALEF (Adaptive Line Enhancer Filter) that is capable of enhancing impulsive signals embedded in background noise. This method is used to pre-process signals prior to time-frequency analysis via higher order methods such as the combined higher order time-frequency.
Authors: Jin Yi Lee, Ji Seoung Hwang, Kyung Chul Lee, Se Ho Choi
Abstract: It is important to estimate a magnetic field’ intensity distribution for the application of to industrial nondestructive evaluations. A magnetic camera provides the same spatial resolution and a distribution of a quantitative magnetic field with homogeneous lift-off. The method for arraying sensors is important on the magnetic camera because it must obtain a high spatial resolution. This work proposes an equation to evaluate the limitation of spatial resolution on the condition of the decided size of a magnetic sensor package. The possibility of obtaining the high spatial resolution in spite of the above-mentioned limitation would also be verified.

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