Advances in Fracture and Damage Mechanics VIII

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Authors: Alan Plumtree
Abstract: Damage mechanics has been applied to describe the cyclic behaviour of glass fibre-polyester and carbon fibre-epoxy composites with different lay-ups under various loading conditions. Damage evolution was determined by continually monitoring fatigue modulus degradation and measuring the crack density. These methods complemented each other. They showed that the damage could be separated into two stages. Damage evolved rapidly for the first 10% of life, followed by a more gradual and linear accumulation for the remainder of life. In general, the transition from the first to the second stage indicated a change from transverse matrix cracking to fibre-matrix debonding and coalescence. Damage mechanics was applied to the fatigue modulus changes that occurred in the stress-strain hysteresis loops, monitored throughout life. A two-stage model was applied to express damage evolution using the modulus- and crack-based damage parameters. This model successfully described cyclic damage evolution for different lay ups of the PMCs. The significance of which was that the amount of fatigue damage for any stress level at the end of the initial stage could be used to accurately predict fatigue life and construct a stress-life diagram for the given composite
Authors: Gabrielle Hilson, Peter E.J. Flewitt
Abstract: Residual macro-stresses have to be evaluated using trial samples that comprise a CMSX4 superalloy coated with either a RT22 or a CN91 bond-coat. The samples were exposed in air to a matrix of temperatures, in the range 850°C to 1050°C, and times extending upto 4000hrs to produce thermally grown oxide. This oxide is essentially Al2O3 which allows stresses to be measured by photoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to characterise the oxides formed. The results are discussed with respect to confidence in the measurements, changes in stress with temperature and exposure time and the potential for photoluminescence spectroscopy to be used to measure stresses for service components.
Authors: Olaf van der Sluis, P.H.M. Timmermans, E.J.L. van der Zanden, J.P.M. Hoefnagels
Abstract: Stretchable electronics offer potential application areas in biological implants interacting with human tissue, while also facilitating increased design freedom in electronics. A key requirement on these products is the ability to withstand large deformations during usage without losing their integrity. Experimental observations show that delamination between the metal conductor lines and the stretchable substrate may eventually lead to short circuits while also the delaminated area could result in cohesive failure of the metal lines. Interestingly, peel tests show that the rubber is severely lifted at the delamination front caused by its high compliance. To quantify the interface in terms of cohesive zone properties, these parameters are varied such that the experimental and numerical peel-force curve and rubber-lift geometry at the delamination front match. The thus obtained interface properties are used to simulate the delamination behavior of actual three-dimensional stretchable electronics samples loaded in tension.
Authors: Zahid R. Khokhar, Ian A. Ashcroft, Vadim V. Silberschmidt
Abstract: Fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are being increasingly used in structural applications where high specific strength and stiffness are required. The performance of FRPCs is affected by multi-mechanism damage evolution under loading which in turn is affected by microstructural stochasticity in the material. This means that the fracture of a FRPC is a stochastic process. However, to date most analyses of these materials have treated them in a deterministic way. In this paper the effect of stochasticity in FRPCs is investigated through the application of cohesive zone elements in which random properties are introduced. These may be termed ‘stochastic cohesive zone elements’ and are used in this paper to investigate the effect of microstructural randomness on the fracture behaviour of cross-ply laminate specimens loaded in tension. It is seen from this investigation that microstructure can significantly affect the macroscopic response of FRPC’s, emphasizing the need to account for microstructural randomness in order to make accurate prediction of the performance of laminated composite structures.
Authors: Qing Fen Li, Yan Jie Liu, Hai Dou Wang, Sheng Yuan Yan
Abstract: Thin walled tubes, particularly those of square or circular cross-section, are the common types of automobile crash-box, which equipped at the front end of a car, is one of the most important automotive parts for crash energy absorption. In the present work, energy absorption characters of square and circular cross-section thin walled tubes at low-velocity frontal impact are investigated respectively by using finite element (FE) method. The numerical simulations were carried out using the software LS-DYNA. The tubes were modeled using shell element of designation Belytschko-Tsay, which is suitable for large strain analyses. The FE model of the tube was validated by comparing the theoretical calculation results, experimental results and FE model results. Results show that on average the difference of these results was within 10%. The good correlation of results obtained show that the numerical analyses are reliable.
Authors: Shu Sheng Xu, Xiang Guo Zeng, Hua Yan Chen
Abstract: The crack propagation for pure Magnesium at an atomic scale level under external loading was carried out by using a molecular dynamics method. In this study, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) was used to characterize the interactions of atoms and the Newtonian equations were solved by Velocity-Verlet algorithm. The crack propagation and failure processes were observed around the crack tip. The calculation results reveal that vacancies were formed near the crack tip during the failure processes for pure Magnesium, and the coalescence between crack tip and vacancies induced the crack growth with the increase in loading.
Authors: Luca Susmel, David Taylor
Abstract: The present paper is concerned with the use of the Theory of Critical Distances (TCD), applied in the form of the Point Method (PM), to estimate the range of the threshold value of the stress intensity factor, Kth, as well as the plane strain fracture toughness, KIc. In more detail, by reanalysing a large amount of experimental data taken from the literature, it is proved that Kth can successfully be evaluated through the plain fatigue limit and another fatigue limit generated by testing samples containing a known geometrical feature, whereas KIc is suggested here as being estimated by using experimental results generated by testing samples weakened by notches of different sharpness. The validation exercise summarised in the present paper fully confirms that the TCD is not only a reliable method suitable for performing the static and fatigue assessment of real components, but also an efficient experimental strategy capable of accurately estimating the classical Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) material properties.
Authors: Qing Fen Li, Yu Dong Fu, Hai Dou Wang, Jun Wang
Abstract: The microbiological influenced corrosion (MIC) behavior of the Cu-Ni alloy with or without Ni-P plating in the sterilized medium and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) solution was investigated. Results show that severe pitting corrosion appeared on the uncoated specimens in both the sterilized medium and the SRB solution when the specimens coated with Ni-P plating were still in good condition. Since the Ni-P plating may offer both barrier and cathodic protection to the base metal. Besides, the structures of Ni-P plating and the passive film on the surface of the Ni-P plating are high uniform and amorphous without any structure defects. The non-crystalline structure may improve the corrosion resistance because it does not have crystalline defects such as dislocation, grain boundary, twin and so on which may cause corrosion easily. It is concluded that corrosion behavior of the Cu-Ni alloy with electroless Ni-P plating was improved greatly.

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