Abstract: The geometric proportions of cube-shaped specimens subjected to wedge-splitting tests are numerically studied in the paper. The minimal notch length for specimens made of cement based composites varying in characteristic length of the material (a measure of material brittle-ness/heterogeneity) is verified using finite element method code with an implemented cohesive crack model (ATENA). The problem of assigning the crack initiation point (the notch tip vs. the groove corner in the load-imposing area of the specimen) is solved numerically also using both the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics and the theory of the fracture mechanics of generalized singular stress concentrators in the second part of the two-part paper. Results ob-tained by the different approaches are compared. The minimal notch length is recommended.
Abstract: The paper focuses on the geometrical proportions of cube-shaped quasi-brittle specimens subjected to a wedge-splitting test (WST). The minimal/optimal initial crack/notch length for successful performance of WST on these specimens is studied numerically (ANSYS). This second part of the paper treats the problem asymptotically, i.e. from the point of view of a very fine grained silicate composite material with negligible characteristic length which describes the level of the material brittleness (i.e. brittle). The problem of competition of the crack initiation point between the notch tip and the groove corner in the load-imposing area of the specimen is solved using theories of both linear elastic fracture mechanics and fracture mechanics of generalized singular stress concentrators. The numerically obtained crack/notch length is compared to results of numerical simulations using cohesive crack model reported in the first part of the paper. The minimal notch length is recommended.
Abstract: Axial and circumferential critical buckling loads of thin cylindrical shell with stiffened rings are obtained by semi-analytical FEM. Then the interval widths of critical buckling loads which are obtained by interval analysis method are compared to those obtained by convex model method. The lower and upper bounds of axial and circumferential critical buckling loads increase with the increase of number of ring and are larger when the ring is placed on the inside of the shell than that is placed on the outside of the shell. The influence of variety of interval width of each basic variable on the variety of interval widths of critical buckling loads is obtained in this paper.
Abstract: This study presents an optimization technique with hierarchical mesh generation technique and genetic algorithm. The present technique is applied to optimize layout of electrodes on cathodic protection.
Abstract: The formation of fracture process zones in polygranular reactor core moderator graphites subjected to four-point bending has been investigated. The three-dimensional digital image correlation technique has been combined with resistance strain gauge measurements to evaluate, both the localised and the global displacements during testing. The non-linear load-displacement characteristics prior to peak load are correlated with the localised displacements which can extend up to ~3mm (process zone) from the tensile surface of the specimen. At peak load a macro-crack propagates rapidly along an irregular path controlled by the direction of the applied tensile load and the microstructure of the graphite. These cracks arrest prior to complete separation of the specimen. Localised tensile process zones extend for distances of up to ~3mm ahead of the tips of these cracks.
Abstract: Deformation anisotropy of sheet aluminium alloy 2198 (Al-Cu-Li) has been investigated by means of mechanical testing of notched specimens and Kahn-type fracture specimens, loaded in the rolling direction (L) or in the transverse direction (T). Contributions to failure are identified as growth of initial voids accompanied by a significant nucleation of a second population of cavities and transgranular failure. A model based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) approach of porous metal plasticity incorporating isotropic voids, direction-dependent void growth, void nucleation at a second population of inclusions and triaxiality-dependent void coalescence has been used to predict the mechanical response of test samples. The model has been successfully used to describe and predict the direction-dependent deformation behaviour, crack propagation and, in particular, toughness anisotropy.
Abstract: The multistory masonry buildings with variable wall thickness along the height have suffered different degrees of damage subjected to the Wenchuan earthquake. In order to study the failure mechanism of such masonry structure under the earthquake, three types of five-story structure of computational model are firstly introduced in this paper, including (1) the wall thickness of five stories is 240mm; (2) the wall thickness of the first floor is 370mm, and that of the upper four stories is 240mm; (3) the wall thickness of the first and second story is 370mm, and that of the other stories is 240mm. Then, the elastoplastic time-history dynamic analysis is carried on with the story shear model by the finite element method, and the ground motion of El Centro waves are adopted as earthquake input motion. The analysis results show that variation of wall thickness along height can easily cause stiffness mutation of the upper and lower floor, lead to local floor deformation concentration and soft floors, and the change of failure mechanism of the structure. Finally, it is suggested that some appropriate seismic resistance measures should be taken to meet the lateral stiffness ratio of the upper and lower floor in the later design of this structure, or this kind of structure should be avoided using as far as possible.
Abstract: During Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, masonry buildings have suffered severely damaged and collapsed, causing heavy casualties and huge economic losses. In this paper, based on seismic site survey data, some new phenomena and characteristics of earthquake damage in comparison with the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, such as seismic damage of large space buildings, inclined or “X” shaped crack in wall between windows or spandrel wall, stair damage, falling of precast reinforced concrete slab and horizontal crack at the bottom of structure, are discussed in detail. Then, the impact factors of seismic capacity of masonry building in Wenchuan earthquake, including construction age, seismic fortification, bay size, floor (roof) form, layer number, thickness of bearing wall are analyzed, respectively; Finally, some recommendations on seismic design and reconstruction of masonry structure by the seismic design code are proposed.
Abstract: In this paper, the dynamic macroscopical properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC) are studied by using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The effect on dynamic properties of RPC material with different water binder ratio (W/B) and steel fiber influence under high temperature burnt is discussed. And scanning electron microscope (SEM) technology is also used to investigate the micro-structure change under high temperature burnt. The experiment result shows: without high temperature burnt, the higher water binder ratio, the lower dynamic compression strength of RPC material. With high temperature burnt, strength decreases exquisite. However, steel fiber can prevent micro-crack from generating, the toughness effect still alive after high temperature burnt. From SEM analysis: the inner part of RPC will have a series of physical chemistry changing, such as: micro-crack generation, C-S-H gel damage. This essential change is the basic reason for dynamic properties degrade.
Abstract: The existence of viscosity effect at the interface of double dissimilar materials has an important impact to the distribution of interface crack-tip field and the properties variety of the interface itself. The singularity and viscosity are considered in crack-tip, and the elastic-viscoplastic governing equations of double dissimilar materials at interface crack-tip field are established. The displacement potential function and boundary condition of interface crack-tip are introduced, and the numerical analysis of elstic-viscoplastic/rigid interface for mode I are worked out. The stress-strain fields are obtained at the crack-tip and the variation rules of solutions are discussed according to each parameter. The numerical results show that the viscosity effect is a main factor of interface propagating at crack-tip field, and the interface crack-tip is a viscoplastic field that is governed by viscosity coefficient、Mach number and singularity exponent.