Residual Stresses VII, ECRS7

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Authors: Ru Lin Peng, J. Gibmeier, Sebastian Eulert, Sten Johansson, Guo Cai Chai
Abstract: The deformation behaviour of the super duplex stainless steel SAF2507 (UNS S32750) under successive uniaxial tensile loading-unloading was investigated with respect to load sharing and inter-phase interactions. The steel consists of 58% austenite and 42% ferrite in volume. By insitu X-ray diffraction experiment the evolution of phase-specific stresses with applied load was monitored for three successive loading-unloading cycles with the maximum total strains being 0.34%, 0.75% and 1.63%, respectively. It was found that yielding occurred earlier in the austenitic phase than in the ferritic phase during the first loading cycle. In the followed loading cycles, both phases yielded under larger but similar applied stresses. Due to a similar behavior of the phases in the elasto-plastic regime inter-phase interactions were relatively weak. Low microstresses induced by the plastic straining resulted in somewhat larger stresses in the ferritic phase.
Authors: D. Gloaguen, Emmanuel Girard, Ronald Guillén
Abstract: Complementary methods have been used to analyse residual stresses in zirconium alloy tubes which were manufactured by cold rolling : X-ray diffraction and scale transition model. A modified elasto-plastic self-consistent model (EPSC) has been used to simulate the experiments and exhibits agreement with experimental data. X-ray diffraction analysis in rolling direction shows opposite stress values for {10 14 } and { 2022} planes respectively. The measured strains were generated by an anisotropic plastic deformation. Plastic incompatibility stress on X-ray measurements should be taken into account so as to make a correct interpretation of the experimental data.
Authors: Neila Hfaiedh, Manuel François, Khemais Saanouni
Abstract: Internal stresses are an important factor in understanding the work hardening behaviour of polycrystalline materials. The goal of the present paper is to study the development of second order stresses in textured copper sheets at large plastic strains, up to fracture by X-ray diffraction. Second order stresses manifest themselves as peak displacements and width changes as azimuth and tilt angles are varied. As the acquisition is performed with a position sensitive detector, a specific correction of intensities is required in order to take into account texture influence on peak shape and consequently on peak position and width.
Authors: Mariusz Bielawski
Abstract: A laser beam profilometry technique was used to investigate residual stress accumulation during TiN deposition and stress relaxation during post-deposition heat treatment. The test coatings were reactively sputtered on silicon and steel substrates using a UMS technique. TiN coatings, deposited at different bias and pressure levels, were evaluated for residual stress and microhardness. It was found that both the residual stress and the hardness were strongly affected by the coating deposition conditions. In addition, stress-temperature correlations were obtained by subjecting the coatings to temperature cycles up to 450°C. Stress-temperature plots revealed that the level of residual stress relaxation depended on deposition conditions and only coatings deposited at low ion bombardment could be fully annealed. The role of intrinsic and thermal stresses in the total residual stress in the coating/substrate system was also discussed.
Authors: Harri Lille, Jakub Kõo, Alexander Ryabchikov, Toomas Pihl
Abstract: An experimental method was developed for determination of residual stresses in electrochemically metallized (brush-plated) coatings by measuring the slit increment of the unclosed ring strip substrate after deposition process. The substrate is fixed to a mandrel, which makes free slipping of the edges as well as momentless deformation of the coated substrate possible. The calculation formula is extended Stoney’s formula which takes into consideration the real shape of the substrate, and the difference of the elasticity moduli of the coating and the substrate materials. The difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the coating and substrate materials is also taken into account. Residual stresses are determined for four materials (nickel, zinc, copper, silver) from six electrolytes.
Authors: Kenji Suzuki, Keisuke Tanaka, Takahisa Shobu
Abstract: A NiCoCrAlY bond coating was low-pressure plasma sprayed on a stainless steel sub- strate. Zirconia with 8 wt% yttria was deposited on the bond coating using an electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The top coating had the preferred orientation with the h111i axis direction perpendicular to the coating plane. The distribution of the in-plane residual stress in the top coating was measured using laboratory Cr-K X-rays with a progressive layer removal method. The value of the in-plane stresses was determined by the sin2 method after the separation of the 133 and 331 peaks. The distribution of the out-of-plane strain in the top coating was measured using the strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays. The out-of-plane strain was obtained from the 333 peak which had strong intensity due to the preferred orientation. The measured value of the in-plane stress in the top coating was a large compression, and showed a steep decrease near the in- terface between the top and the bond coatings. The distribution of the out-of-plane stress showed a compression, and its magnitude was smaller than that of the in-plane stress.
Authors: Adele Carradò, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Nathalie Viart, Ion N. Mihailescu, Gabriel Socol, Sorin Grigorescu, Jacques Werckmann, S. Ciuca, M. Tarcolea
Abstract: The aim of this paper is the residual stress evaluation in dental implants and the improvement of adherence at the metal-ceramic interface. This study is focused on the development of a multi-layer system model of Hydroxyapatite/TiO2/Ti components. Our aim is to validate new methods of laser ablation deposition and sol-gel, by controlling the residual stresses and actual adherence to titanium substrates. We present a report of the growth of hydroxyapatite layers by PLD (pulsed laser deposition) and sol-gel deposition, and the measurement of their residual stresses.
Authors: Michael L. Benson, A.D. Stoica, Peter K. Liaw, Hahn Choo, T.A. Saleh, X.L. Wang, Donald W. Brown, Dwaine L. Klarstrom
Abstract: ULTIMET® alloy, a cobalt-based superalloy with good corrosion and wear resistant properties, exhibits a deformation-induced phase transformation from the face-centered-cubic (FCC) phase to the hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) phase. The HCP phase formation during monotonic tensile loading was investigated using in-situ neutron diffraction. The HCP phase is first observed at a stress level of 810 MPa, which is well beyond macroscopic yielding. Strain analysis is performed on the FCC phase diffraction data in order to relate the lattice-strain development with the evolution of the new HCP phase. A method of calculating the effective macroscopic stress associated with the measured lattice strains is presented here. The effective stress can then be compared to the applied macroscopic stress in order to draw conclusions about the load-partitioning behavior of the material as a new phase develops.
Authors: Yu. V. Taran, Jürgen Schreiber, Mark R. Daymond, E.C. Oliver
Abstract: On ECRS-6 [1], we have presented first results of the researches of fatigue degradation and martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel AISI 321 by neutron diffraction stress analysis. A series of samples preliminary ex-situ cyclically fatigued at the frequency of 5 and 0.5 Hz was in-situ tested on the stress rig of the ENGIN instrument. In the high cycle fatigued (HCF) samples, the applied stress-elastic strain responses of austenite and martensite phases were find out to be strongly different as compared to the low cycle fatigued (LCF) samples, in which they are close. Moreover, the martensite Poisson ratio in the HCF-samples is almost twice to that of observed 0.28-0.30 in austenite and in both phases of the LCF-samples. With the purpose to search the reason of such unusual behavior of the martensite phase, one of the HCF-samples has been anew in-situ tested on the stress rig of the ENGIN-X in: 1) a LCF-mode at the frequency of 0.1 Hz to increase the fatigue level, and 2) a quasistatic mode to measure the applied stress-elastic strain responses of both phases. Also, two of the LCF-samples have been subjected to the ex-situ secondary HCF-testing at the frequency of 5 Hz and again in-situ measured on the ENGIN-X stress rig. Results of the mechanical characterization of phases in the twice fatigued austenitic stainless steel are presented and discussed.
Authors: B. Malard, Thilo Pirling, Karim Inal, Etienne Patoor, Sophie Berveiller
Abstract: This paper focuses on the study of the superelastic behavior associated to the stress induced martensite transformation in a Cu-12.5%Al-0.5%Be [wt. %] shape memory alloy. Neutron diffraction was used to track the evolution of stress in the (β1) austenitic phase during the onset of the stress-induced martensite phase change. A thin flat and a cylindrical specimen was analyzed, allowing us firstly to evaluate the stress evolution in the austenite phase during martensitic transformation with laboratory X-ray and neutron diffraction and secondly to compare differences between methods (sin2ψ, principal stress) for in-situ neutron diffraction experiments.

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