Residual Stresses VII, ECRS7

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Authors: Zuheir Barsoum
Abstract: In this paper three-dimensional welding simulations were carried out in FE software ANSYS in order to predict transient temperatures and the residual stresses in a three pass welded tubular joints. The thermal analysis and the moving heat source were verified with temperature measurements and the computed residual stresses were verified with hole drilling measurements. Then residual stress relaxation analyses were carried out on the tubular structure, with similar load cases as in earlier fatigue testing on the same tubular joint structures.
Authors: A. Lahlal, Jean Michel Sprauel, H. Michaud
Abstract: In this work a complete analytical model of elastic-plastic bending, tension and / or torsion has been developed to simulate the manufacturing of leaf springs and coil suspensions. A special procedure was also implemented to simulate mechanical surface treatments such as shot peening. These models allow predicting the plastic strains and residual stresses induced by successive loadings of the part. Our approach required first defining the mechanical behaviour of the material. The constitutive laws of the employed steels were therefore identified starting from cyclic loops recorded for tests carried out at various imposed strains. These laws were introduced in the plasticity model to simulate the different steps of manufacturing: forming of the part, presetting operations, shot peening, elastic-plastic shake down produced by the first cycles of fatigue. In order to validate the model, residual stress maps were also characterized by X-Ray diffraction. However, to retrieve the maximum of information from this kind of measurement, the experimental data has been analysed through a global method which processes the whole acquired diffraction peaks at once.
Authors: Florent Cochennec, Emmanuelle Rouhaud, Delphine Retraint, Sébastien Rouquette, Arjen Roos
Abstract: Shot-peening is a surface treatment widely used in the industry to improve fatigue life of mechanical components by introducing compressive residual stresses. Ultrasonic shot-peening is a recent development of this process. While the classical shot-peening process uses pneumatic energy to project the shots, ultrasonic peening uses high-power ultrasounds. This energy source allows the use of larger shots projected at lower velocity as compared to classical shot-peening. This work aims at studying the mechanical response (restitution coefficient, residual stress field) of a surface impacted by a shot at low velocity using the finite element method and experimental analysis. This paper presents the simulation of a single elastic steel shot normally impacting an Aluminum alloy plate considered to exhibit a linear-elastic behavior and non-linear isotropic work hardening characteristics. The numerical simulations are carried out for different impact velocities in order to take into account the heterogeneous shot velocity field observed in an ultrasonic shot-peening chamber. We compare the simulated rebound energy and the indentation profiles obtained for different impact velocities to experimental results. The simulated residual stress field topology shows a strong dependence on the shot velocity. While numerical results obtained at high impact energy agree well with literature results, the residual stress distribution simulated for low impact energies shows a tensile layer below the impacted area. The restitution coefficients and the indentation profiles compare well with the experiments.
Authors: Alexander M. Korsunsky, Kyung Mok Kim, Gabriel M. Regino
Abstract: Residual stresses in titanium alloy samples that were subjected to shot peening followed by fretting fatigue loading were investigated using a combined experimental and numerical analysis procedure based on the concept of eigenstrain. Fretting fatigue loading was carried out in the pad – on-flat geometry using the Oxford in-line fretting rig. Flat-and-rounded pad shape was used to introduce the contact tractions and internal stress fields typical of the target application in aeroengine design. The specimens were in the shape of bars of 10mm square cross-section shotpeened on all sides. Both the pads and specimens were made from the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Small remote displacement characteristic of fretting fatigue conditions was applied in the experiments. The residual elastic strains in the middle of the pad-to-sample contact and near the rounded pad edge were measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction on Station 16.3 at SRS Daresbury. A combination of finite element analysis and the distributed eigenstrain method was used in the simulations. Commercial finite element analysis software, ABAQUS ver 6.41, was used to build the finite element model and to introduce the residual stresses into the model using eigenstrain distributions via a user-defined subroutine. In an unfretted shot peened sample an excellent agreement of residual stress profiles was obtained between the experimental data and model prediction by the variational eigenstrain procedure. In a fretted sample the residual stress change due to fretting was observed, and predicted numerically. A good correlation was found between the FE simulation prediction and the experimental data measured at contact edges.
Authors: Manuel Klemenz, Volker Schulze, Otmar Vöhringer, Detlef Löhe
Abstract: In a three-dimensional Finite-Element-Simulation of shot peening, a combined isotropickinematic viscoplastic material description was introduced in order to describe the cyclic softening effects during peening. After verifying the model in the simulation of push-pull tests at different strain amplitudes it could be used for the shot peening simulation. The simulated residual stress profile is compared with experimental results determined by X-ray diffraction and with simulated results of a simpler isotropic viscoplastic material model.
Authors: O.R. Hachkevych, V.S. Mykhailyshyn, A. Ravska-Skotnichna
Abstract: The mathematical model is developed for description of thermomechanical processes at cooling during high temperature annealing with the known initial temperature distribution (the temperature of holding) and stresses (acquired stresses at the final of a holding). It is taken into account the thermal sensitivity and material hardening at elasto-plastic solid deforming. The methodology based on the finite element method is proposed for solving thermomechanics problems of wide range. The suitable software is developed. At the final stage of annealing a cylindrical solid it is investigated residual stresses being formed on the cooling stage.
Authors: Lyndon Edwards
Abstract: The safe operation of many structures and components is ensured through the operation of damage tolerant design and evaluation. Substantial residual stresses can exist in many systems and it is important that these are incorporated in damage tolerance calculations of fatigue crack growth. Recent improvements in non-destructive measurement techniques and in the application of weight or Green’s functions methods of including residual stress fields into stress intensity factor (SIF) calculations have enabled predictions of the effects of residual stresses on fatigue crack propagation to be made more readily. Two examples from the aerospace industry, structures containing (i) cold expanded holes and (ii) fusion welds are used to show that presently, although final crack growth lives can be accurately predicted, the details of crack growth are not well represented with initial growth typically being underestimated and later growth being over estimated. It is shown that this is most likely to be due to residual stress redistribution. and that this must be built into fatigue life prediction models if accurate damage tolerance based procedures are to be developed for components and systems containing substantial residual stresses.
Authors: Marc Seefeldt, Artur Walentek, Paul van Houtte, Miroslav Vrána, Petr Lukáš
Abstract: This paper reports about a combined neutron and X-ray diffraction study on the residual stresses in the ferrite matrix of cold-rolled fully pearlitic steel sheet. Neutron diffraction revealed compressive residual phase microstresses of about – 500 MPa in rolling direction. However, even in normal direction there are significant tensile residual microstresses, indicating that the morphology of the lamellar microstructure cannot be properly described as a “sandwich structure”. Neutron diffraction was also used during an in-situ tensile test to estimate the microstress level in the cementite phase. The combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction allows to separate, near the surface, the residual phase microstresses from the macrostresses. The latter are also important in rolling direction and imply some risk of undesirable shape changes after forming operations.
Authors: Toshihiko Sasaki, Shunichi Takahashi, Kengo Iwfuchi, Yukio Satoh, Yoshikazu Kanematsu, Masanobu Chiba, Shigeki Takago
Abstract: In this study, a new portable X-ray stress analyzer was designed and manufactured. The purpose of its use is to evaluate the rolling contact fatigue damage in rails for establishing an effective rail maintenance method. An image plate was used in this analyzer for detecting diffracted X-ray beams. The cosα method was adopted for X-ray stress analysis from X-ray diffraction data. A fundamental experiment was made first for examning the present measurement system. Residual stresses in rails used in service for six years were also investigated in this study.
Authors: W. Woo, Zhi Li Feng, X.L. Wang, K. An, W.B. Bailey, S.A. David, C.R. Hubbard, Hahn Choo
Abstract: Localized heating was imposed on a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy plate to cause thermal strains, and simultaneously interplanar spacing changes were measured using in-situ time-resolved neutron diffraction techniques. Two different methods were used: 1) direct real-time measurements of the transient behavior and 2) a series of measurements based on the quasi-steady state (QSS) principle. A comparison of the two results shows that the QSS method can represent the transient behavior under the current experimental conditions.

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