Residual Stresses VII, ECRS7

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Authors: Alexander Ryabchikov, Harri Lille, R. Laaneots
Abstract: In this study uncertainties of measurement are evaluated for residual stresses in coatings determined by the method of measurement of the longitudinal deformation of a tubular substrate, a wire substrate and a strip substrate. Higher uncertainty was observed in the case of applying a thin coating on a strip substrate. The precision of the equipment depends on the elastic element used for measurement of the longitudinal deformation of the substrate. Residual stresses were determined in the galvanic nickel coating deposited on a tubular substrate, a wire substrate and a strip substrate from the Watts bath. Copper and brass was used as the material of the substrate. The investigated experimental system is presented.
Authors: Axel Steuwer, Matthew J. Peel, Thomas Buslaps
Abstract: In this paper we discuss certain aspects of residual stress measurements using energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction using very high X-ray energies in the range up to 200keV. In particular, we focus on the strain resolution and its relation to the geometric contribution to the instrumental resolution. This energy range together with the brilliance of insertion devices allows measurements in bulk materials with penetration approaching those of neutrons, and the technique is demonstrated to have a high potential for residual stress determination. However, the use of high X-ray energies implies a relatively small diffraction angle and in turn a relatively elongated gauge volume, which favours the application of the technique to essentially 2D problems.
Authors: Thomas Wroblewski, A. Bjeoumikhov, Bernd Hasse
Abstract: X-ray diffraction imaging applies an array of parallel capillaries in front of a position sensitive detector. Conventional micro channel plates of a few millimetre thickness have successfully been used as collimator arrays but require short sample to detector distances to achieve high spatial resolution. Furthermore, their limited absorption restricts their applications to low energy X-rays of around 10 keV. Progress in the fabrication of long polycapillaries allows an increase in the sample to detector distance without decreasing resolution and the use of high X-ray energies enables bulk investigations in transmission geometry.
Authors: Bernd Hasse, Mustafa Koçak, Walter Reimers
Abstract: The non-destructive and phase selective determination of residual stresses caused by material processing (such as welding) in polycrystalline samples is usually performed by diffraction methods. In order to obtain information about stress fields at high spatial resolution with conventional methods, for example with micro beam techniques, the sample needs to be scanned in a very time consuming manner. A much faster method is the simultaneous investigation of a larger area using position sensitive diffractometry. This method was used for the analysis of the residual stress distribution in laser beam welded thin (2 mm and 3 mm) magnesium sheets.
Authors: Vincent Goret, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Patrick Vardon
Abstract: Nitriding is a thermo-chemical treatment to improve fatigue life of steel parts what are exposed to high cyclic loading on and close to the surface like gears for example. During the nitrogen diffusion, the precipitation of nitrides and carbides generates residual stresses and increases the superficial hardness. These residual stresses are function of the conditions of the nitriding process but also critically depend on the geometry of the steel components. Indeed, the result of the diffusion process is different for a plane geometry or a curvilinear one. In this present work, the sample is a part of a gear, composed by two teeth. Between two teeth of gear, the determination of in-depth stress gradients by classical X-rays diffraction cannot be done with a great accuracy: the spatial resolution is not sufficient because the irradiated area has the same dimension than the surface curvature of the component. Furthermore, it is very difficult to take into account the removal of matter that is required to determine in-depth stress profile because of the particular geometry. The synchrotron diffraction technique is a well-adapted method to determine such stress gradients in strongly absorbing materials due to the capability of penetration power of high energy X-rays. The removal of matter is not required and it is possible to determine an in-depth map of the stress tensor. After measurements on the ESRF ID15 beam line, stress profile has been calculated without the σ33 equal to zero hypothesis. The results are as following: compressive residual stresses were found close to the surface, and the calculated σ33 component of stress tensor is really not equal to zero. This important result seems to show the geometrical effect on stress state near non-plane surface.
Authors: P. Frankel, Jian Ding, Michael Preuss, Jim Byrne, Philip J. Withers
Abstract: The current study compares the residual strain around foreign object damage (FOD), measured using synchrotron diffraction, to the strain predicted by a plastic model with power-law dependence. It is shown that the measured strains are significantly lower than those predicted by the model. This may be explained in part, by the inability of the model to account for damage mechanisms such as micro-cracking and shear band formation.
Authors: M. Topic, R. Bucher, Willem J.J. Vorster, Shu Yan Zhang, P.J. McGrath, Alexander M. Korsunsky
Abstract: The kinetics of plastic deformation and microstructural evolution, and the residual stress in particular, were investigated on the steel plates (SABS 1431) bent by laser beam. The steel plates were bent by different number of laser scans and therefore, each was bent to a different extent. The stress results obtained by x-ray diffraction (sin2ψ-method) show a higher compressive stress along the laser path than in the transverse direction. It was also found that stress relaxation occurs during multi-scan laser forming process and most importantly, that the stress is not significantly different in comparison to the stress, which initially existed in rolled steel plates. The metallographic analyses show that phase transformation, dynamic recovery and recrystallization processes occur during laser forming.
Authors: Jeremy S. Robinson, David A. Tanner
Abstract: To produce useful strengthening, precipitation hardenable aluminium alloys rely on rapid quenching from the solution heat treatment temperature to suppress the formation of coarse equilibrium second phases. An unavoidable consequence of the rapid quenching of thick sections is the severe thermal gradients that quickly develop in the material. The attendant inhomogeneous plastic flow can then result in the establishment of residual stresses. The surface and through thickness residual stress magnitudes present in heat treated high strength aluminium alloy components are frequently reported to exceed the uniaxial yield stress of small specimens of the same alloy measured immediately after quenching. In thick section plate and forgings it is proposed that these high residual stress magnitudes are a consequence of hardening precipitation that occurs during quenching which allows for a greater elastic stress to be supported. To investigate this theory, thick sections of the quench sensitive alloy 7175 and the less quench sensitive alloy 7010 were heat treated in such a way as to allow the internal hardness to be measured immediately, after quenching. The rate of cooling was also monitored during quenching and these data were used in conjunction with time temperature property data to predict the degree of precipitation and subsequent loss of hardening potential in the fully heat treated condition. The magnitudes of the residual stresses induced during quenching were determined using standard x-ray diffraction techniques.
Authors: Robert C. Wimpory, Farid R. Biglari, Rainer Schneider, Kamran M. Nikbin, N.P. O'Dowd
Abstract: This paper considers the measurement of residual stresses induced by mechanical loading in a weld Type 347 stainless steel. The work is based in part on an ongoing Round Robin collaborative effort by the Versailles Agreement on Materials and Standards, Technical Working Area 31, (VAMAS TWA 31) working on ‘Crack Growth of Components Containing Residual Stresses’. The specific objective of the work at Imperial College London and HMI, Berlin is to examine how residual stresses and prior straining and subsequent relaxation at high temperature contribute to creep crack initiation and growth for steels relevant to power plant applications. Tensile residual stresses have been introduced in the weld by pre-compression and neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out before and after stress relaxation at 650 oC. Significant relaxation of the residual stresses has been observed, in agreement with earlier work on a stainless steel. Preliminary results suggest that the strains local to the crack drop by over 60% after 1000 h relaxation at 650 oC for the weld steel. The results have been compared with finite element studies of elastic-plastic pre-compression and stress relaxation due to creep.
Authors: Volkan Güley, A. Erman Tekkaya, Turhan Savaş, Feridun Özhan
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate surface residual stresses after heat treatment and grinding processes in the production of rollers. The residual stresses were measured using the X-ray diffraction method utilizing chromium radiation, which has an average penetration depth of 5 μm incident on AISI-E52100 (100Cr6) ball bearing steel. Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) is applied to define the set of experiments for grinding, which facilitates evaluation of the individual influences of process parameters on residual stresses and also eliminates unnecessary experiments. Response of residual stresses to each parameter is evaluated with the help of the results of residual stress measurements by X-ray diffraction. In grinding with aluminum oxide wheels, it was concluded that the lower the cutting speed and the higher the workpiece speed the higher the magnitude of surface compressive residual stresses. Higher compressive stresses were measured in axial direction compared to the circumferential direction after the grinding process.

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