Graphene Formation on SiC Substrates
Graphene layers were created on both C and Si faces of semi-insulating, on-axis, 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The process was performed under high vacuum (<10-4 mbar) in a commercial chemical vapor deposition SiC reactor. A method for H2 etching the on-axis substrates was developed to produce surface steps with heights of 0.5 nm on the Si-face and 1.0 to 1.5 nm on the C-face for each polytype. A process was developed to form graphene on the substrates immediately after H2 etching and Raman spectroscopy of these samples confirmed the formation of graphene. The morphology of the graphene is described. For both faces, the underlying substrate morphology was significantly modified during graphene formation; surface steps were up to 15 nm high and the uni-form step morphology was sometimes lost. Mobilities and sheet carrier concentrations derived from Hall Effect measurements on large area (16 mm square) and small area (2 and 10 m square) samples are presented and shown to compare favorably to recent reports.
Amador Pérez-Tomás, Philippe Godignon, Miquel Vellvehí and Pierre Brosselard
B. L. VanMil et al., "Graphene Formation on SiC Substrates", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 615-617, pp. 211-214, 2009