Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2008

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Authors: Elif Berkman, R.T. Leonard, Michael J. Paisley, Y. Khlebnikov, Michael J. O'Loughlin, Albert A. Burk, Adrian R. Powell, D.P. Malta, E. Deyneka, M.F. Brady, I. Khlebnikov, Valeri F. Tsvetkov, H.McD. Hobgood, Joseph J. Sumakeris, C. Basceri, Vijay Balakrishna, Calvin H. Carter Jr., C. Balkas
Abstract: Availability of high-quality, large diameter SiC wafers in quantity has bolstered the commercial application of and interest in both SiC- and nitride-based device technologies. Successful development of SiC devices requires low defect densities, which have been achieved only through significant advances in substrate and epitaxial layer quality. Cree has established viable materials technologies to attain these qualities on production wafers and further developments are imminent. Zero micropipe (ZMP) 100 mm 4HN-SiC substrates are commercially available and 1c dislocations densities were reduced to values as low as 175 cm-2. On these low defect substrates we have achieved repeatable production of thick epitaxial layers with defect densities of less than 1 cm-2 and as low as 0.2 cm-2. These accomplishments rely on precise monitoring of both material and manufacturing induced defects. Selective etch techniques and an optical surface analyzer is used to inspect these defects on our wafers. Results were verified by optical microscopy and x-ray topography.
Authors: Jung Woo Choi, Chang Hyun Son, Jong Mun Choi, Gi Sub Lee, Won Jae Lee, Il Soo Kim, Byoung Chul Shin, Kap Ryeol Ku
Abstract: Two SiC single crystal ingots were prepared using sublimation PVT techniques through the different process procedure and then their crystal quality was systematically compared, because the present research was focused to improve the quality of SiC crystal by modifying the initial stage of the PVT growth. Before the main growth step for growing SiC bulk crystal, initial stage period where growth rate was kept to relatively low rate of <10μm/h was introduced to conventional process procedure. N-type 2”-SiC single crystals exhibiting the polytype of 6H-SiC was successfully fabricated. As compared to the characteristics of SiC crystal grown using the conventional schedule, the quality of SiC crystal grown with modifying the initial stage was significantly improved, exhibiting decrease of defect formation such as micropipe and polytype formation.
Authors: Philip Hens, Ulrike Künecke, Katja Konias, Rainer Hock, Peter J. Wellmann
Abstract: Silicon carbide as a material for electronic devices still has substantial problems concerning its structural quality and defects. It has been shown that dopants can have a big influence on structural properties like polytype stability and dislocation statistics [1]. We will discuss the effect of an isoelectronic dopant in silicon carbide. Germanium, being a member of the 4th group in the periodic table of elements like silicon and carbon, will not influence the electrical properties of the material such as e.g. aluminum. In our experiments we reached concentrations of up to 1*1020 cm-3. We have observed an impact on the polytype stability during sublimation growth with in-situ germanium incorporation. We investigated an influence on the dislocation statistics during growth and, hence, varying germanium concentration. We found only a slight decrease in mobility during Hall measurements but no severe changes in electrical properties of the material.
Authors: Emil Tymicki, Krzysztof Grasza, Katarzyna Racka, Marcin Raczkiewicz, Tadeusz Łukasiewicz, Maciej Gała, Kinga Kościewicz, Ryszard Diduszko, Rafał Bożek
Abstract: 4H-SiC single crystals grown by the seeded physical vapour transport method have been investigated. These crystals were grown on 6H-SiC seeds. The influence of the seed temperature, form and granulation of SiC source materials on the stability and efficiency of the 4H polytype growth have been investigated. A new way of the seed mounting - with an open backside - has been used. Crystals obtained were free of structural defects in the form of hexagonal voids. The crystalline structure of SiC crystals was investigated by EBSD (Electron Backscatter Diffraction) and X-Ray diffraction methods. Moreover, defects in crystals and wafers cut from these crystals were examined by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy combined with KOH etching.
Authors: Katarzyna Racka, Emil Tymicki, Marcin Raczkiewicz, Krzysztof Grasza, Michal Kozubal, Elzbieta Jurkiewicz-Wegner, Rafał Jakieła, Andrzej Brzozowski, Mariusz Pawłowski, Miroslaw Piersa, J. Sadło, Jerzy Krupka
Abstract: n- and p-type 6H-SiC single crystals grown by PVT method using different charge materials – poly-SiC sinter or fresh SiC powder – have been studied. An open or closed seed backside during the growth processes have been applied. In the former, a distinct decrease backside etching of the seed was observed. Crystals have been extensively characterized with respect to their purity, quality and electrical properties using complex experimental methods. For the n-type boule an axially and radially homogeneous resistivity ~0.11 cm at 300 K was observed. Electrical properties of the p-type crystal, i.e., high room-temperature resistivity of 239 cm, were affected by compensation effects between residual donors (nitrogen and oxygen) and acceptors (mainly boron).
Authors: Peter J. Wellmann, Katja Konias, Philip Hens, Rainer Hock, Andreas Magerl
Abstract: This work reports on the in-situ observation of a polytype switch during physical vapor transport (PVT) growth of bulk SiC crystals by x-ray diffraction. A standard PVT reactor for 2” and 3” bulk growth was set up in a high-energy x-ray diffraction lab. Due to the high penetration depth of the high-energy x-ray beam no modification of the PVT reactor was necessary in order to measure Laue diffraction patterns of the growing crystal with good signal to noise ratio. We report for the first time upon the in-situ observation of polytype switching during SiC bulk PVT growth.

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