Mechatronic Systems and Materials III

Volumes 147-149

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.147-149

Paper Title Page

Authors: Jerzy Jantos, Krzysztof Prażnowski, Jarosław Mamala
Abstract: Automatization of gear shift and number selection in passenger cars with stepped transmission result in improvement of driving safety due to concentration of driver’s attention on the conditions of the traffic [1, 3]. Besides, the car can be used by a disabled person. The most important benefit of the projected solution is associated with reduction in fuel consumption resulting from the more economical selection of the transmission ratio [4, 5, 7]. The gear number choice depends on many factors, for example: traffic conditions, temporum vehicle and engine rotational speed as well as engine load. It is very often the case that even a driver with experience can face problems with optimal decisions. Automatically controlled system with suitable algorithm can reduce fuel consumption and improve the vehicle drivability. The system named MeGSS (Mechatronic Gear Shift System) has been developed for this purpose. It was subsequently tested in a passenger car equipped with five-step gear box. In the car the MeGSS is responsible for engine start process and the gear shift procedure. In this system the manual (M) and automatic (A) gear ratio control is possible. The gear shift procedure is connected with electronic throttle control algorithm, which promote smooth power transmission [2, 6].
185
Authors: Piotr Niklas, Andrzej Grono, Mariusz Dąbkowski, Grzegorz Redlarski, Marcin Śliwiński
Abstract: The main goal of this article is to compare the accuracy of the extrapolations time phase coincidence for the selected methods. In the comparing analysis selected the method using calculable function, polynomial function and linear function. The general idea of synchronization proceed in electrical power system is presented. The most important work conditions during realization of this proceed are mentioned. The most important is the realization of phase condition. Incorrect realization of the phase condition may causes numerous consequences, from power impact and current compensatory impact till loose of synchronous work. For this reason known methods of extrapolation of the time phase coincidence are recalled and their pros and cons are described. Next a new non-linear method of extrapolation of the time phase coinci¬dence realized by calculable function is presented. Then the comparison analysis of the selected methods is made. As the comparative criterion the time phase error is taken. The methods were tested for different parameters concerning frequency difference of voltages synchronizing power objects. One of the testing data set obtained from the mathematical model of the control speed angle unit for water plant with long pipes and large difference water levels. This gives the rigorous testing conditions because of the dynamic changing frequency difference. The values of the numerous tests done on the testing device showed that the new method results in better performance parameters. The paper includes the most important results of the comparative tests. Conclusions and final summary are made.
191
Authors: Audrius Senulis, Eleonora Guseinovienė, Viktoras Cirtautas, Valdas Jankūnas, Lionė Urmonienė
Abstract: This paper deals with the control efficiency analysis of the linear oscillating mechatronic device (linear oscillating synchronous motor–compressor). These mechatronic devices can be controlled by using thyristor control [1, 4], square-wave voltage [2, 3], ect. There is analyzed the case, when square-wave voltage pulses’ frequency is changed and so the piston stroke duration time is reduced. The control of piston stroke changes the energetic parameters of the mechatronic device. This type of controlling has one disadvantage – it needs a DC voltage source. The pulsating voltage control is based on thyristor control system and does not have the previously mentioned disadvantage, because uses the AC voltage source, but both control ways have influence to the energetic parameters due to higher harmonics. The analysis of the chosen mechatronic device (open-loop tests) is based on comparing the modeling and experimental results with respect to power losses, simplicity of the control, power factor and disturbances to the supply system. These results are important for the optimal design of the drive with oscillating synchronous pulsating current motors and the selection of control type for the different type of load.
197
Authors: Lucas Ginzinger, Roland Zander, Heinz Ulbrich
Abstract: A new approach to control a rubbing rotor by applying an active auxiliary bearing is developed. The auxiliary bearing is attached to the foundation via two unidirectional actuators. The control force is applied indirectly using the active auxiliary bearing only in case of rubbing. A framework for the development of a feedback controller for an active auxiliary bearing is presented. The theory of a robust two-phase control strategy which guarantees a smooth transition from free rotor motion to the state of full annular rub is presented. A simulation environment for the elastic rotor and the auxiliary bearing including the non-smooth nonlinear dynamics of the rubbing contact is used to develop the feedback controller. Experimental studies have been carried out at a rotor test rig. Various experiments show the outstanding success of the strategy. In case of rubbing, the contact forces are reduced up to 90%.
203
Authors: Jana Kovářová, Miloš Schlegel, Jan Dupal
Abstract: The paper deals with the vibration suppressing of cantilever beam. The state feedback control law is used, where the controller and observer are designed by pole assignment method. First two natural frequencies are considered for design of the control law. The analysis of the location of actuator and sensor are investigated. Experimental results obtained from the closed loop system with incomplete pole assignment are compared with uncontrolled system.
215
Authors: Wojciech Blajer, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk
Abstract: Cranes are underactuated mechanical systems with fewer control inputs than the degrees of freedom. Their usual performance goal is to execute a desired load trajectory, which is specified by as many outputs as the control inputs. A solution to the inverse simulation problem, in which the control of the underactuated system required to execute the partly specified motion is determined, is a challenging task. The inverse simulation study is usually formulated in independent variables. In this paper a dependent variable formulation is reported, advantageous in many aspects. The resultant governing equations appear as simple index-three differential-algebraic equations, and an effective numerical code for their solution is discussed.
221
Authors: Tomasz Rogalski, Andrzej Tomczyk, Grzegorz Kopecki
Abstract: At the Department of Avionics and Control Systems problems of aeronautical control systems have been dealt with for years. Several different kinds of aeronautical control systems have been designed, prototyped and tested. These control systems are intended for general aviation aircraft and unmanned aircraft. During all research projects computer simulations and laboratory tests were made. However, since in some cases such tests were insufficient, in-flight tests were conducted leading to a series of reliable results. The in-flight tests were made with the use of M-20 Mewa aircraft (autopilot for a GA aircraft) and PZL-110 Koliber aircraft (control system for UAV and indirect flight control system for a GA aircraft). Nevertheless, in-flight testing is very expensive and problematic. To avoid some problems appearing during in-flight tests and their preparation, a simulator – which is normally used for professional pilot training – can be used. The Aviation Training Center of the Rzeszów University of Technology possesses the ALSIM AL-200 MCC flight simulator. We have started preparing this simulator for the research. It is possible to control the simulated aircraft with the use of an external control system. The solution proposed enables testing the aircraft control algorithms, indirect control laws (e.g. control laws modifying handling qualities), as well as testing and assessment of the students’ pilotage skills. Moreover, the solution makes it possible to conduct tests connected with aircraft control, crew management, crew cooperation and flight safety. The simulator allows us to test dangerous situations, which – because of safety reasons – is impossible during in-flight testing. This paper presents modifications to the simulator’s hardware and additional software, which enable the described research.
231
Authors: Janusz Kwaśniewski, Ireneusz Dominik
Abstract: Shape Memory Alloys SMA attracts more and more interest and nowadays many research centers are working on developing more accurate and applicable actuators. A tangible effect of using SMA materials is considerable simplification of the constructions used so far, which entails obvious economic benefits. Along with the increase in the volume of production and decrease in the cost of production, SMA materials become increasingly available on the consumer market. In the article the use of SMA wire to build and control linear position actuators was presented. The SMA actuator is characterized by one of the highest in technology weight ratios, which describes the ratio of maximum external load to its own weight. It allows for building miniature devices which are extremely efficient. Generally SMA wires are applied as on-off objects. After initial research and building several prototypes the gear transmission was chosen. It was decided to realize an actuator which can work in both directions of displacement, and so allow for the elimination of a return spring, which is a unique solution.
237
Authors: Shiuh Jer Huang, Chie Yi Wu
Abstract: A stereo visual servo robotic system is developed on Nios II SOPC developing board with ALTERA FPGA chip to manipulate a retrofitted Mitsubishi RV-M2 robotic system. The 3-D position information between the target and stereo vision system can be extracted by low cost CMOS stereo vision algorithm first. Then, the relative motion between the robotic end-effector and the target can be planned to guide robot arm to catch the object. The fuzzy sliding mode control algorithm is employed to monitor the trajectory motion of each joint. The experimental results show that this visual servo robotic system can track and catch a moving target in 3D space and execute some interaction functions with player.
243
Authors: Sunita Chauhan, Swandito, Gerald Gim Lee Seet
Abstract: Several factors affect the safe operation of a bio-mechatronic system such as design limitations of the robots to do complex surgical manoeuvres, malfunction of the system’s components, unpredictability of the working envelope to name a few. One measure that can be taken in order to improve the safe performance is to implement a reliable control system. In our research, an optimal control hierarchy and strategy is considered for implementation for non-invasive surgical applications. A control strategy is proposed for supervisory hybrid control using PID and model-based robust control as the parameterized controllers and its implementation for FUSBOTBS (a custom designed robotic system using Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Breast Surgery) is demonstrated. Mechanical feasibility tests and in-vitro experimental trials supported the results with a positioning accuracy within 0.5mm.
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