Abstract: The importance of artificial light has long been recognized as it extends the day. Copious corporations and academic institutions are investing cosmic treasures in tracking down the advanced artificial lighting applications with a vision towards energy efficient and eco-friendly solid state lighting. In this regard, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are going to change the human lifestyle, by offering a promising avenue to develop future energy saving solid-state lighting sources because of their intrinsic characteristics such as low driving voltage, high resolution, high brightness, large viewing angle, large color gamut, high contrast, less weight and size, efficiency etc., there by dictating their ability to reach the pinnacle in the field of flat panel displays and solid state lighting sources. With the goal towards future application, many design strategies like synthesis of novel materials, well judged anatomy of device configuration, development of refined and low cost fabrication techniques have been put forward to achieve high efficiency, good color stability and quality lighting. Practical applications, which enrich the ideas of the specialists in this field to develop new routes for future research development of OLEDs are enumerated and illustrated by specific examples. This chapter also integrates the novel approaches for energy efficient and eco-friendly solid state lighting as well as the limitations and global haphazards of currently used lighting systems. The current state of the art, ongoing challenges and future perspectives of this research frontier to reduce the driving voltage, minimization of degradation issues, enhance their life time are illustrated. Review on the status and future outlook of these OLEDs strongly reveals their emergence in the next few years.
Abstract: Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been the focus of intense study since the late 1980s, when the low voltage organic electroluminescence in small organic molecules such as Alq3, and large organic molecules such as polymers (PPV), was reported. Since that time, research has continued to demonstrate the potential of OLEDs as viable systems for displays and eco-friendly lighting applications. OLEDs offer full colour display, reduced manufacturing cost, larger viewing angle, more flexible, lower power consumption, better contrast, slimmer, etc. which help in replacing the other technologies such as LCD. The operation of OLEDs involves injection of charge carriers into organic semiconducting layers, recombination of charge carriers, formation of singlet and triplet excitons, and emission of light during decay of excitons. The maximum internal quantum efficiency of fluorescent OLEDs consisting of the emissive layer of fluorescent organic material is 25% because in this case only the 25% singlet excitons can emit light. The maximum internal quantum efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs consisting of the emissive layer of fluorescent organic material mixed with phosphorescent material of heavy metal complexes such as platinum complexes, iridium complexes, etc. is nearly 100% because in this case both the 25% singlet excitons and 75% triplet excitons emit light. Recently, a new class of OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) has been reported, in which the energy gap between the singlet and triplet excited states is minimized by design, thereby promoting highly efficient spin up-conversion from non-radiative triplet states to radiative singlet states while maintaining high radiative decay rates of more than 106 decays per second. These molecules harness both singlet and triplet excitons for light emission through fluorescence decay channels and provides an intrinsic fluorescence efficiency in excess of 90 per cent and a very high external electroluminescence efficiency of more than 19 per cent, which is comparable to that achieved in high-efficiency phosphorescence-based OLEDs.The OLED technology can be used to make screens large enough for laptop, cell phones, desktop computers, televisions, etc. OLED materials could someday be applied to plastic and other materials to create wall-size video panels, roll-up screens for laptops, automotive displays, and even head wearable displays. Presently, the OLEDs are opening up completely new design possibilities for lighting in the world of tomorrow whereby the offices and living rooms could be illuminated by lighting panels on the ceiling. The present paper describes the salient features of OLEDs and discusses the applications of OLEDs in displays and solid state lighting devices. Finally, the challenges in the field of OLEDs are explored.
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Abstract: Recently, organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials have been of great interest for their extraordinary performances due to the combination of the advantageous properties of polymers and the size dependent properties of nanocrystals (NCs). Interaction between the polymer matrix and nanocrystalline fillers produces wonderful features, viz. thermal, magnetic, mechanical, electrical and optical properties to these materials. Modern applications require a new design of responsive functional coatings which is capable of changing their properties in a controlled way. However, the synthesis of II-VI nanoparticles into the polymer matrix of its nanocomposites with adjustable sizes and protected from photo-oxidation is a big challenge to the scientific community. It is difficult to synthesize the highly enhanced luminescence in polymers and its semiconductor nanocomposite systems. Luminescence from the polymer embedded II-VI nanoparticles is greatly enhanced and better stability can be achieved from the composite compared to bulk materials. The formation of nanocomposites can be confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It is an important technique for determining the optical gap, purity, crystalline quality defects and analysis of the quantum confinement in these nanocomposite materials. In this paper, we have reviewed the present status of II-VI polymer nanocomposites from the photoluminescence studies point of view. We have also shown the results of the PL of these nanocomposite materials and the results will be compared with the reported literature by other groups.Contents of Paper
Abstract: Several research groups have reported that nanocrystalline II-VI semiconductors show enhanced luminescence, increased oscillator strength and shorter response time. Nanocrystalline powder samples of CdS, CdSe, ZnS and ZnSe nanocrystals and their composites with PVA and PVK have been prepared by chemical route. SEM. TEM and AFM images indicate agglomeration of particles. XRD reveal the crystal structure and size in nanometer range and absorption spectra show increased band gap due to quantum confinement.The EL studies on nanocrystalline powder samples and nanocrystal/polymer composites have shown that the light emission starts at certain threshold voltage, different for different specimens and then increases with increasing voltage. It is found that smaller nanocrystals have lower threshold voltage and higher EL brightness. It is observed that nanocomposite give much higher electroluminescence starting at lower voltage and increasing very fast with the voltage as compared to nanocrystalline powder. The emission spectra are found to depend on the material, crystalline size and doping. Electroluminescence in undoped and doped chalcogenide nanocrystals and nanocomposites is reviewed in this paper. In nanosize regime, electroluminescence (EL) is governed by the size quantization effect.
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Abstract: Persistent luminescence as well as Thermoluminescence (TL), both the phenomena are nothing but long-period afterglow having lifetime (τ) in the broad range of few minutes to few days. Therefore, it is nothing but natural that all persistent luminescent materials exhibit excellent thermoluminescence. This review critically discusses the data available in literature and provides a commentary on the trap-spectroscopy of persistent luminescent materials as a whole with special emphasis to commercial materials that have found wide applications in safety signage, road sign display as well as sensors for structural damage and in vivo medical imaging. Finally, it also provides some “thumb-rules” to eliminate few fatal misconceptions that have crept into the literature
Abstract: Thermoluminescence (TL) is basically a super-sensitive phenomenon exhibit ted practically by all semiconductors/ insulators upon suitable excitation. The occurrence of TL peaks during the thermal scan of a previously excited material gives rise to a number of peaks whose trapping parameters and relative concentrations can be evaluated by well-known techniques. Thus, TL in principle is a unique tool to characterize scintillator crystals. The technique is capable to detect the relative abundance of carriers in traps as shallow as ≈0.1eV to as deep as 2.0eV; providing means to probe carriers having lifetime (τ) as low as ∼ps to as large as billions of years. Hence the technique can be used to design scintillator materials of desired properties specially the decay time, the rise-time and the afterglow by adjusting the presence/absence of relevant trapping levels.
Abstract: Luminescence, mainly thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), has been researched for more than five decades towards its application to earth and planetary sciences. Luminescence production mechanism has been understood through several theoretical studies, like analytical kinetic theory, numerical models along with the experimental results. Instrument development has progressed with aim from user friendly TL/OSL reader dedicated for dating to challenging reader for in-situ Martian sediment dating. Since the development of optical dating in 1985, the technique revolutionised the research in earth sciences. And since then to recent, many methodologies have been developed and some are in developing stage using different signals, like, single grain OSL, red TL, time resolved OSL, thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL), post infrared-infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL), violet light stimulated luminescence (VSL), infrared radioluminescence (IRRL), etc. with an objective to improve the accuracy and precision and to extend the dating range. The wide range of application in different environment, e.g. aeolian, fluvial, marine, glacier, soil, volcanic materials, heated materials, shocked materials, meteorites, etc. have made the technique successful to understand the quaternary history of earth and planetary information like terrestrial and cosmic ray exposure ages of meteorite, meteoroid orbit, thermal metamorphism history of meteorite etc. The aim of this present paper is to discuss some landmarks and recent trends in the development and application in these areas.
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Abstract: This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference irradiation. It then briefly describes development of spectrometers in dating applications, and finally gives an overview of recent development in the field directly linked to novel instrumentation.
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Abstract: Thermoluminescence reader is an important tool and a requisite for a researcher to study and characterize Thermoluminescence (TL) materials in different forms. Requirement for a versatile PC Controlled TL Reader has been felt for quite some time globally. Nucleonix Systems, Hyderabad, India, have developed a PC Controlled TL Reader by integrating complete electronics hardware circuits (comprising of Power Electronics, Low/High voltage Supplies, Temperature Controller, Micro Controller based data acquisition circuits having serial counter, ADC, DAC, EEPROM, PMT, PMT housing, sample heating system, drawer assembly, etc.) in a single enclosure. The system also integrated with software to calculate the activation energy (E), frequency factor (S) and order of kinetics ‘1’ for the prominent glow peaks using different equations.This Integral TL Reader unit gets connected to the Personal Computer System through serial port RS232C/USB port. The user interface to the system is through front–end VB software defined Graphics User Interface (GUI). The system also contains some of the software features like glow curve acquisition, analysis, filing, printing, plotting, overlapping, maker data reporting, etc. Additionally, system facilitates single/two/three plateau heating with variable heating rates.The primary objective of this development is to bring out versatile TL instrumentation system and also to make it affordable to many of the researchers in the Universities and other areas, including Radio-therapist, Medical Physicists in Cancer Hospitals. This system has been evaluated for its performance with CaSO4: Dy discs, powder, as well as with LiF: Mg, Ti chips. Linearity and reproducibility have been found to be quite satisfactory also within +2%. This system is quite useful to study the TL of phosphor, minerals and characterization of various solid semiconducting materials, and also can be used in personal dosimetry measurements and research studies in medical dosimetry, environmental radiation monitoring, and host of other applications in R&D Labs., etc.