Formation of Radiation-Induced Defects in Si Crystals Irradiated with Electrons at Elevated Temperatures
Defects induced in silicon crystals by irradiations with 6 MeV electrons in the temperature range 60 to 500 oC have been studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and high-resolution Laplace DLTS. Diodes for the study were fabricated on n-type epitaxially grown Si wafers. The DLTS spectra for the samples irradiated at elevated temperatures were compared with those for samples, which were subjected to irradiation at 60 oC and subsequent isochronal anneals in a furnace. The dominant radiation-induced defects in the samples irradiated at temperatures lower than 400 oC were found to be vacancy-oxygen (VO) and interstitial carbon – interstitial oxygen (CiOi) complexes. The introduction rates of the VO and CiOi centers increased about twice upon raising the irradiation temperature from 50 to 400 oC. It is argued that this effect is associated with either a) the suppression of the annihilation rate of Frenkel pairs or b) a decrease in the threshold energy for displacement of a host Si atom upon increase in the irradiation temperature. Transformations of deep level traps due to divacancies (V2) and trivacancies (V3) to V2-oxygen and V3-oxygen complexes were found to occur upon irradiation or annealing at temperatures exceeding 250 oC. A clear anti-correlation between changes in the minority carrier life time induced in the p+-n diodes by irradiation at different temperatures and changes in the concentrations of radiation-induced vacancy- and vacancy-oxygen-related complexes was found.
M. Kittler and H. Richter
V. P. Markevich et al., "Formation of Radiation-Induced Defects in Si Crystals Irradiated with Electrons at Elevated Temperatures", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 156-158, pp. 299-304, 2010