Residual Stresses VII, ICRS7

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Authors: Yan Huai Li, Jian Lu, Ke Wei Xu
Abstract: Residual stresses distribution after shot peening and its relaxation during uni-axial loading were investigated experimentally and theoretically on stainless steel of AISI304. An analytical model was proposed based upon continuum plasticity theory and elasto-plasticity finite element (FE) analysis, in which both relaxation of shot peening induced residual stress and variation of yield strength in the surface layer were taken into consideration. The results show that the value of yield strength in surface layer is altered after shot peening, and the relaxation of residual stress takes place at the point where the combination of applied strain and residual strain exceeds the true value of yield strength. A fundamental agreement was proved between measurements and predictions in simple tension and compression.
Authors: C. Pilé, Delphine Retraint, Manuel François, Jian Lu
Abstract: The aim of this work is to use ultrasonic shot peening, a mechanical surface treatment derived from conventional shot peening, in order to increase the fatigue life of TiAl alloys. The goal of this treatment is to generate compressive superficial residual stresses which are aimed to enhance fatigue crack initiation and growth resistance. For this purpose, different ultrasonic shot peening tests have been carried out on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb samples in order to optimise treatment conditions. The first results reveal that it is possible to generate very high stress levels (»1000 MPa) beneath the surface, far much higher than the tensile yield stress of the material which is in the range 350-600 MPa. Such a phenomenon was also observed in ultrasonic shot peened iron or stainless steel and seems to be associated to the creation of a new homogeneous and nanometric structure below the surface of the alloy [1, 2]. In the light of these encouraging results, the shot peening treatment was optimised in terms of residual stresses profile and surface quality. The influence of different parameters of shot peening like the treatment time, the shot diameter as well as the specimen-sonotrode distance were studied. S-N curves were realised on polished specimens as well as on shot peened samples in order to study the effect of the treatment on the fatigue life of this intermetallic alloy.
Authors: René V. Martins, Veijo Honkimäki
Abstract: The strain and phase distributions in friction stir welds (FSW) of AA2024-T3 to AA2024-T3 and AA2024-T3 to AA6082-T6 are investigated non-destructively. The measurements are performed using a novel depth resolved strain and phase mapping technique. The technique is based on the use of a focussed high energy synchrotron beam, a novel spiral slit system, and an area detector system. The strain scans across the dissimilar FSW exhibit a strong asymmetry in particular for the longitudinal strain component. A depth resolved strain mapping across the weld shows for the dominant longitudinal strain component variations in depth, especially on the AA6082 side of the dissimilar weld. The variations are significantlty weaker in the AA2024 / AA2024 weld. Results from the strain measurements are related to the depth resolved map of the material distribution in the weld zone.
Authors: M. Qin, Vincent Ji, S.Y. Ma, J.B. Li
Abstract: Investigation on the quasi-static residual stress relaxation is an important aspect of component design and life management. After taking into account the influence of transverse stress and strength distribution, this paper proposes a new criterion of residual stress relaxation under quasi-static load as follow: the surface residual stress tends to relax as long as the Mises effective stress anywhere exceeds the local yield point. In addition, by X-ray tensile test, a method of determining superficial yield strength based on the Von Mises hypothesis was applied at the shot-peened surface of a martensitic stainless steel 0Cr13Ni4Mo. The experimental results show that the yield strength of superficial layer is larger than that of core material. According to the experimental results, a simplified ladder-shaped model of the depth distribution of yield strength is proposed. On the basis of the above-mentioned relaxation criterion and the strength distribution model, a new method is presented to calculate the relaxation amount. The calculated results coincide with the experimental results.
Authors: P. Juijerm, I. Altenberger, U. Noster, Berthold Scholtes
Abstract: The cyclic deformation behavior of deep rolled and polished aluminium wrought alloy AlMg4,5Mn in the temperature range 20-300°C has been investigated. Results of quasistatic tension and compression tests of untreated specimens in the temperature range 20-300°C are presented. To characterize the fatigue behavior for stress-controlled tests as a function of test temperature, s-n curves, cyclic deformations curves and mean strains as a function of number of cycles are given. The residual stress- and work hardening states near the surface of deep rolled aluminium alloy AlMg4.5Mn before and after fatigue tests were investigated by X-ray diffraction methods. The investigated AlMn4.5Mn aluminium alloy shows cyclic hardening until fracture at all stress amplitudes in stress-controlled fatigue tests at 25-150°C. With increasing temperature the deformation behavior shifts from cyclic hardening to cyclic softening. Below a certain stress amplitude at a given temperature deep rolling led to a reduction of the plastic strain amplitude as compared to the untreated state through cyclically stable near-surface work hardening as indicated by stable FWHM-values. This reduction in plastic strain amplitude is associated with enhanced fatigue lives. The effectiveness of deep rolling is governed by the cyclic and thermal stability of nearsurface work hardening rather than macroscopic compressive residual stresses. Since nearsurface work hardening is known to retard crack initiation, deep rolling is also effective in temperature- and stress ranges where macroscopic compressive residual stresses have relaxed almost completely, but where near-surface work hardening prevails. Above certain stress amplitudes and temperatures, deep rolling has no beneficial effect on the fatigue behavior of AlMg4.5Mn. This is a consequence of instable near-surface microstructures, especially instable near-surface work hardening.
Authors: Yu Kui Gao, Xue Ren Wu, Feng Lu, Mei Yao, Qingxian Yan
Abstract: The characteristics of compressive residual stress fields induced by shot peening in 40CrNi2Si2MoVA, 16Co14Ni10Cr2Mo, 30CrMnSiNi2A and 0Cr13Ni8Mo2Al ultra-high strength steels, which are used widely in aeronautical industry were investigated, and the change of surface integrity including surface residual stress, surface roughness as well as its effects on fatigue properties were investigated. The results show that the fatigue limits of ultra-high strength steels can be increased by shot peening because the surface integrity can be ameliorated by shot peening, and that for a given steel there is a appropriate peening intensity under which the fatigue property of this steel is optimum. Finally, a judgement for the optimization condition of shot peening process is proposed based on a theory of micro-meso processes of fatigue crack initiation and experimental results. The technique should be considered to be optimum, if the fatigue crack source of shot peened specimen has been moved to the internal matrix metal region beneath the hardened layer; and its apparent fatigue limit has been improved and got to a value, which is near to that predicted according to the concept of surface/internal fatigue limit.
Authors: Jens Gibmeier, Stefan Hartmann, Berthold Scholtes
Abstract: Various methods have been proposed in recent years for the determination of mechanical properties of a material by using instrumented indentation testing. These load and depth sensing indentation techniques imply the measurement of a characteristic load-indentation depth curve by the aid of which numerous materials properties can be extracted. On the other hand in many publications the effect of applied or residual stresses on the results of hardness readings is investigated. Methods are proposed to estimate applied or residual stresses by means of instrumented indentation testing. Based on this obvious inconsistency between these procedures on the use of information of instrumented hardness testing the influence of residual stresses as well as applied stresses on continuous microhardness readings is systematically investigated for steel samples. Experimental investigations were supplemented by finite element simulations of ball indentation tests on equi-biaxially prestressed materials states. These simulations show that the registered force-indentation depth curves as well as the geometry of the indentations are affected by loading and residual stresses in a characteristic way. For hardness values changes of up to 35% are determined with reference to the unstressed initial state.

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