High-Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion 2005

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Authors: Kunihiko Wada, Yutaka Ishiwata, Norio Yamaguchi, Hideaki Matsubara
Abstract: Several kinds of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) were produced as a function of electron beam power in order to evaluate their strain tolerance. The deposition temperatures were changed from 1210 K to 1303 K depending on EB power. In order to evaluate strain tolerances of the EB-PVD/TBCs, a uniaxial compressive spallation test was newly proposed in this study. In addition, the microstructures of the layers were observed with SEM and Young’s moduli were measured by a nanoindentation test. The strain tolerance in as-deposited samples decreased with an increase in deposition temperature. In the sample deposited at 1210 and 1268 K, high-temperature aging treatment at 1273 K for 10 h remarkably promoted the reduction of the strain tolerance. The growth of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer generated at the interface between topcoat and bondcoat layers was the principal reason for this strain tolerance reduction. We observed TGO-layer growth even in the as-deposited sample. Although the thickness of the initial TGO layer in the sample deposited at high temperature was thicker, the growth rate during aging treatment was smaller than those of the other specimens. This result suggests that we can improve the oxidation resistance of TBC systems by controlling the processing parameters in the EB-PVD process.
Authors: Wei Gao, Zheng Wei Li
Abstract: A two-step deposition-oxidation method was successfully developed to fabricate zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures. Morphological observations clearly showed that a controllable growth of dense/porous oxide films, nanowhiskers, nanowires, and nanobelts could be obtained by controlling the deposition and oxidation conditions. Photoluminescence properties of the ZnO films were also studied. A strong and predominant ultra-violet near-band-edge emission could be observed on most of the samples, while a green or red color emission accompanying with a largely suppressed ultra-violet emission could be realized on the samples with different processing conditions. The results therefore indicated that ZnO films and structures with desirable microstructural and optical properties could be obtained with this deposition-oxidation technique under controllable conditions.
Authors: Hiroyuki Matsumaru, Shigenari Hayashi, Toshio Narita
Abstract: A diffusion couple study was carried out with Ni-based superalloy / γ’-Ni3Al with or without a Re-based alloy layer. The Re-based alloy containing Re, W, Cr, and Ni was formed on a second generation, single crystal Ni-based superalloy by using electroplating processes to form films of 70at%Re-Ni and Ni-20at%W, followed by Cr-pack cementation at 1573K for 36ks. The superalloy with or without the Re-based alloy layer was bonded to a γ’−Ni3Al alloy in vacuum. Diffusion couples were annealed in an evacuated quartz ampoule at 1423 K for 90 and 360ks. After the 360ks diffusion treatment the Re-based alloy remained sound and suppressed inward Al diffusion from the γ’-Ni3Al, it was further found that outward diffusion of alloying elements from the alloy substrate to the γ’-Ni3Al was also significantly reduced by the Re-based alloy layer.
Authors: Ying Na Wu, Aya S. Suzuki, Hideyuki Murakami, Seiji Kuroda
Abstract: In the present study, platinum-iridium alloys (Ir = 15.8, 27.3, 36.1, 100at.%) were electroplated on a nickel-base single crystal superalloy TMS-82+ followed by a diffusion treatment at 1373K for 1 h. Interdiffusion behavior between the Pt-Ir films and substrates was investigated in terms of chemical composition, phase constitution and morphology. X-ray analysis revealed that annealed specimens consisted of several fcc solid solutioned phases with various lattice parameters, together with ordered intermetallic compounds (L12-(Pt,Ni)3Al and B2-(Ir,Ni)Al), due to the inward diffusion of Pt and Ir from the electrodeposited films to the superalloy substrates, and the outward diffusion of solute elements (Ni, Al, Cr, Co) in the superalloy substrates into the films during annealing. The depth concentration analysis indicated that the Pt-36.1Ir film effectively retarded the outward diffusion of solute elements, especially nickel, from the substrate.
Authors: Yuki Matsuoka, Yasuo Matsunaga, Kiyokazu Nakagawa, Shigeji Taniguchi
Abstract: Isothermal oxidation behavior of a 4th generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy with Pt-modified and Ru-modified aluminide coating was examined in a temperature range 1223 to 1373 K in air. Both Pt and Ru modification improve the oxidation resistance of a simple aluminide coating, especially above 1273 K. They allow thin protective and continuous Al2O3 scales to be intact for at least 500 h at temperatures up to 1323 K. However, the Pt modification drastically accelerates the formation of a secondary reaction zone (SRZ). This suggests that Pt promotes the formation of a topologically close-packed phase by lowering the solubility of refractory elements in γ-Ni. In contrast, the Ru modification reduces the SRZ, and is expected to enhance the phase stability under the coating by preventing the depletion of Ru due to its outward diffusion.
Authors: Kosuke Saito, Shigenari Hayashi, Toshio Narita, Isao Iwanaga, Ryohei Tanaka
Abstract: A coating with a duplex layer structure, outer β-NiAl and inner σ-Re-Cr-Ni layers, was formed on the third generation Nb-5Mo-15W-16Si- 5Hf-5C alloy by using successively Re-pack cementation, electroplating of Re-Ni film, and Cr/Al pack cementation. The duplex layer coating changed during high temperature oxidation to form a coating with a four layer structure: an outermost Ni2Al3, an outer Ni, an inner σ-Re-Cr-Ni, and an innermost χ-Re-Nb. The Re-pack cementation was carried in an alumina crucible where the specimen was buried in Re metal powder, in vacuum at 1573K to form a Re film, and then a Re-Ni film was electroplated onto the Re-pack treated alloy. The coated alloy formed a protective α-Al2O3 scale when oxidized at 1573K in air for 14.4ks. It was concluded that the σ-Re-Cr-Ni phase can act as a diffusion-barrier against both inward Al diffusion and outward diffusion of alloying elements from the alloy substrate to the β-NiAl.
Authors: Kyoko Kawagishi, Atsushi Sato, Akihiro Sato, Toshiharu Kobayashi, Hiroshi Harada
Abstract: The 4th and advanced generation Ni-base single crystal superalloys, which contain large amounts of refractory metals for strengthening and platinum group metals, e.g., Ru, for TCP-phase prevention, show excellent high-temperature strengths. However, these alloying elements seem to decrease high-temperature oxidation resistance. In this study, Ni-base superalloys with various amounts of Ta, Re and Ru were examined in isothermal and cyclic exposures at 1373K to investigate the effect on the oxide growth rate and resistance to scale spallation. Structures of the oxide for the alloys were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDX, and the oxidation kinetics is discussed. Ru and Re were found to degrade the oxidation resistance by the vaporization of their oxide. Ta-rich oxide in the spinel layer affects to stabilize ruthenium and rhenium oxide in the scale and improve the oxidation resistance of Ru-containing Ni-base superalloys.
Authors: Zhao Lin Zhan, Ye Dong He, De Ren Wang, Wei Gao
Abstract: A novel technique has been developed to prepare micro-/nano-crystal aluminized ODS coatings on stainless steel and nickel-base superalloy. In this technique, the pack aluminizing is combined with the repeated ball impact. Pure Al powder is mixed with 1wt% Y2O3 powder by ball milling. The ultrafine Y2O3 powder is well dispersed in Al particles. The modified Al particles are welded to the surface of metals by ball impact, causing the refinement of coarse grains and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Micro-/nano-crystal alloy layer with Y2O3 grows outward at a much low temperature (below 600°C) and in short treatment duration, compared with conventional pack aluminizing. The effects of processing temperature and duration on formation of the coatings have been analyzed. The microstructure of the coatings is studied using the methods of SEM, AMF, EDS, XRF and XRD. The results indicate that the aluminized ODS coatings appear to be dense, homogeneous, micro-/nano-crystal structure, and consist mainly of Al-rich phases, such as Fe2Al5, FeAl3 NiAl3 and7 CrAl5. High temperature oxidation tests show that the coatings enhance the oxidation resistance.
Authors: X. Peng, J. Zhao, Hong Yan Zhang, Fu Hui Wang
Abstract: Two types of Ni-base nanocomposites were prepared by co-deposition of Ni with nano-sized particles of Cr or CeO2, respectively. Both Ni-Cr and Ni-CeO2 nanocomposites were mainly composed of nanocrystalline Ni matrix, in which certain content of nanoparticles of Cr or CeO2 randomly dispersed. The Ni-Cr nanocomposite was used as a precursor for preparing a novel hard Ni/CrN coating by plasma nitriding at 560oC. The Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite was used as a precursor to develop a novel oxidation-resistant chromia-forming coating by low temperature chromizing using a conventional pack-cementation method. The microhardness of the nitrided layer on the Ni-Cr nanocomposite and the oxidation resistance of the chromizing coating on the Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite were both greatly increased, in comparison to the corresponding counterparts, which were obtained by plasma nitriding on a conventional coarse-grained Ni-Cr alloy with similar Cr content and by chromizing on a coarse-grained Ni metal, respectively. The relationships among the microstructures of the nanocomposite precursors and the nitrided/or chromized coatings, and their properties were investigated and discussed.
Authors: Mitsuhiro Shibata, Seiji Kuroda, Makoto Watanabe, Yukihiro Sakamoto
Abstract: To protect various gas turbine components against high temperature in the hot sections of power generation plants and aircraft engines, thermal barrier coatings (TBC’s) have been developed and widely used. Conventional TBC’s consist of a MCrAlY (M: Ni, Co, NiCo, etc,) bond coating for oxidation resistance and a ceramic top coating for thermal insulation. High quality coatings of MCrAlYs have been produced mostly by low pressure plasma spraying but other more economical processes are also used depending on the operating conditions of the component to be coated. In this study, CoNiCrAlY powders were deposited on Inconel 718 substrate with three types spraying system, i.e., low pressure plasma spraying, high velocity oxy-fuel spraying, and atmosphere plasma spraying. Specimens were isothermally tested for up to 100 h in air at 1373 K. Mass gain of the coatings was measured. Microstructure of the coating cross sections and the surface oxides were observed with SEM. To identify the crystal structure of the formed oxides, the specimens were analyzed by XRD from the surface.

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