Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005

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Authors: Katsunori Danno, Tsunenobu Kimoto
Abstract: Deep levels in as-grown p-type 4H-SiC epilayers have been investigated by DLTS. Three deep hole traps (HK2, HK3 and HK4) can be detected by DLTS in the temperature range from 350K to 700K. They are energetically located at 0.84 eV (HK2), 1.27 eV (HK3) and 1.44 eV (HK4) above the valence band edge. The activation energy of the traps does not show any meaningful change regardless of applied electric field, indicating that the charge state of the deep hole traps may be neutral after hole emission (donor-like). By the low-energy electron irradiation, the HK3 and HK4 concentrations are significantly increased, suggesting that the origins of the HK3 and HK4 may be related to carbon displacement. Study on the thermal stability of these hole traps has revealed that the trap concentrations of HK3 and HK4 are reduced to below the detection limit (1-2 × 1011 cm-3) by annealing at 1350°C. The HK2 is thermally more stable than HK3 and HK4, and becomes lower than the detection limit by annealing at 1550°C.
Authors: W.C. Mitchel, William D. Mitchell, S.R. Smith, G.R. Landis, A.O. Evwaraye, Z.Q. Fang, David C. Look, J.R. Sizelove
Abstract: A variety of 4H-SiC samples from undoped crystals grown by the physical vapor transport technique have been studied by temperature dependent Hall effect, optical and thermal admittance spectroscopy and thermally stimulated current. In most samples studied the activation energies were in the range 0.9 - 1.6 eV expected for commercial grade HPSI 4H-SiC. However, in several samples from developmental crystals a previously unreported deep level at EC-0.55 ± 0.01 eV was observed. Thermal admittance spectroscopy detected one level with an energy of about 0.53 eV while optical admittance spectroscopy measurements resolved two levels at 0.56 and 0.64 eV. Thermally stimulated current measurements made to study compensated levels in the material detected several peaks at energies in the range 0.2 to 0.6 eV.
Authors: Z.Q. Fang, B. Claflin, David C. Look, L. Polenta, J. Chen, Thomas Anderson, W.C. Mitchel
Abstract: Thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC) has been applied to characterize deep traps in high-purity semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates. By using above bandgap to sub-bandgap light for illumination at 83 K and different applied biases, at least nine TSC traps in the temperature range of 80 to 400 K can be consistently observed. It is found that TSC peaks for T < 130 K are significantly affected by light and some peaks are strongly enhanced by the applied bias. Measured trap activation energies range from 0.15 eV to 0.76 eV. Theoretical fittings of selected traps give more accurate trap parameters. Based on literature results connected with deep traps in conductive 6H-SiC, the origin of these TSC traps is discussed.
Authors: M. Duisenbaev
Abstract: In this paper superlinear dependence in the intensity–current characteristic, optical and temperature quenching of photocurrent and photoelectric memory in structures made on the basis of compensated 6H-SiC at room and high temperatures are reported. The maximal time of decreasing of the residual current was 5*104 s. With illumination by additional light with 0.62 μm wavelength and increasing of the applied voltage the value of residual current can be changed. The depth sensitivity centre is positioned at Ec -1.1eV and the cross section of captured holes on this centre is 10-21-10-22 cm2 based on our measurements.
Authors: Mary Ellen Zvanut, Won Woo Lee, Hai Yan Wang, W.C. Mitchel, William D. Mitchell
Abstract: The high resistivity of SiC required for many device applications is achieved by compensating residual donors or acceptors with vanadium or intrinsic defects. This work addresses the defect levels of substitutional vanadium and the positively charged carbon vacancy (VC +) in semiinsulating (SI) SiC. After reviewing the earlier studies related to both defects, the paper focuses on temperature-dependent Hall measurements and photo-induced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments of 4H and 6H SI SiC. In vanadium-doped samples, a V3+/4+ level near Ec-1.1 eV (4H) and Ec-0.85 eV (6H) is estimated by a comparison of dark EPR spectra and the activation energy determined from the Hall data, assuming that vanadium controls the Fermi level. In high purity semiinsulating substrates, analysis of time-dependent and steady-state photo-EPR data suggests that the plus-to-neutral transition of the carbon vacancy involves a structural relaxation of about 0.6 eV.
Authors: Adam Gali, M. Bockstedte, Nguyen Tien Son, T. Umeda, Junichi Isoya, Erik Janzén
Abstract: Only recently the well-resolved hyperfine structure of the P6/P7 EPR center has been experimentally observed. Based on the calculated hyperfine tensors we assign the P6/P7 center to the high spin state neutral divacancy, which is the ground state in agreement with the experiment. We propose a mechanism to explain the loss of divacancy signal at high tem- perature annealing in semi-insulating SiC samples. We discuss the possible correlation between the divacancy and some photoluminescence centers.
Authors: Nguyen Tien Son, T. Umeda, Junichi Isoya, Adam Gali, M. Bockstedte, Björn Magnusson, Alexsandre Ellison, Norio Morishita, Takeshi Ohshima, Hisayoshi Itoh, Erik Janzén
Abstract: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the P6/P7 centers in 4H- and 6H-SiC are reported. The obtained principal values of the hyperfine tensors of C and Si neighbors are in good agreement with the values of the neutral divacancy (VCVSi 0) calculated by ab initio supercell calculations. The results suggest that the P6/P7 centers, which were previously assigned to the photo-excited triplet states of the carbon vacancy-carbon antisite pairs in the double positive charge state (VCCSi 2+), are related to the triplet ground states of the C3v/C1h configurations of VCVSi 0.
Authors: W.E. Carlos, E.R. Glaser, N.Y. Garces, B.V. Shanabrook, Mark A. Fanton
Abstract: High temperature anneals were used to study the evolution of native defects in semiinsulating (SI), ultrahigh purity SiC using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), infrared and visible photoluminescence (PL) and COREMA (Contactless Resistivity Mapping) measurements. In EPR we observe a defect that we tentatively identify as VC-CSi-VC. The EPR intensities of this defect and the UD1 IRPL increase significantly with annealing in all samples.
Authors: Ivan V. Ilyin, Marina V. Muzafarova, E.N. Mokhov, Vladimir Ilich Sankin, P.G. Baranov, S.B. Orlinskii, J. Schmidt
Abstract: P6 and P7 centers, which are responsible for semi-insulating properties of SiC, were shown to be neutral Si-C divacancies (VSi-VC)o having a triplet ground state. The EPR experiments that were performed at very low temperatures and in complete darkness exclude the possibility of a thermal or optically excited triplet state and, as a result, the existing model of excited triplet state P6 and P7 centers was discarded. The optical alignment process which induces the spin polarization of the ground triplet 3A state of the P6, P7 centers in SiC was interpreted to be caused by strong spin selectivity of the intersystem crossing (ISC) nonradiative transitions from an excited 3E state to a metastable singlet 1A state. The luminescence and optical absorption are caused by transitions between spin sublevels of 3A and 3E states. The analogy in properties of a divacancy in SiC and the N-V defect in diamond allows considering the divacancy in SiC as a potential defect for the single defect spectroscopy.
Authors: M. Bockstedte, Adam Gali, T. Umeda, Nguyen Tien Son, Junichi Isoya, Erik Janzén
Abstract: The negative carbon vacancy antisite complex is analysed by ab initio theory in view of the SI5 EPR-center. The complex occurs in a Jahn-Teller distorted ground state and a meta stable state. This and the calculated hyperfine structure agree nicely with the temperature dependent EPR spectra of SI5. An interpretation of the photo-EPR experiments is proposed.

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