Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005

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Authors: Ze Hong Zhang, Amitesh Shrivastava, Tangali S. Sudarshan
Abstract: Dislocations were tracked from 4H-SiC epilayer to the substrate by a new method based on combination of molten KOH etching and Reactive Ion Etching. It was found that basal plane dislocations (BPDs) with dislocation lines parallel (or approximately parallel) to the off-cut direction might propagate as BPDs into the epilayer, while those with dislocation lines forming large angles (>10º) with the off-cut direction will get converted to threading edge dislocations (TEDs). A model is proposed to explain the observations.
Authors: Y. Yanagisawa, Tomoaki Hatayama, Hiroshi Yano, Yukiharu Uraoka, Takashi Fuyuki
Abstract: Propagations of dislocations in 4H-SiC were evaluated three-dimensionally by a planar mapping EBIC method with the control of accelerating voltages. Screw dislocation (SD), edge dislocation (ED), and basal plane dislocation (BPD) were clearly observed through the 20nm-thick Ni Schottky contact on SiC. From the analysis of BPD extended on {0001}, the intensity of EBIC signals was proportional to the depth position of defect. In addition, the information of the decomposition and combination for dislocations can be obtained from the fluctuation of EBIC signal along the scanning position.
Authors: Stanislav I. Soloviev, Peter M. Sandvik, Steve Arthur, Kevin Matocha, S.I. Maximenko, Tangali S. Sudarshan
Abstract: In this work, we investigated the effect of crystal defects on reverse I-V characteristics of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using electron-beam induced current (EBIC) mode of SEM. Two types of SiC APD structures (I and II) were fabricated using 2 inch p-doped substrates with n-doped epilayers and 3 inch n-doped substrates with p- and n- epilayers. Areas of the formed diodes were approximately 1 mm2. The devices without any kind of electrically active 3-D structural defects demonstrated breakdown voltages close to theoretical values, ~500 V for the APD Type I and ~1200 V for Type II APD. Stability of Type I devices was tested by applying a short pulse of high voltage (~800 V). EBIC images, taken prior to and after the failure test, showed new defects in the dislocation free area, which, presumably, were caused by thermal breakdown.
Authors: Michael A. Capano, A.R. Smith, Byeung C. Kim, E.P. Kvam, S. Tsoi, A.K. Ramdas, James A. Cooper
Abstract: 3C-SiC p-type epilayers were grown to thicknesses of 1.5, 3, 6 and 10 μm on 2.5° off-axis Si(001) substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Silane and propane were used as precursors. Structural analysis of epilayers was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution x-ray diffractometry (HRXRD), and Raman spectroscopy. TEM showed defect densities (stacking faults, twins and dislocations) decreasing with increasing distance from the SiC/Si interface as the lattice mismatch stress is relaxed. This observation was corroborated by a monotonic decrease in HRXRD peak width (FWHM) from 780 arcsecs (1.5 μm thick epilayer) to 350 arcsecs (10 μm thick epilayer). Significant further reduction in x-ray FWHM is possible because the minimum FWHM detected is greater than the theoretical FWHM for SiC (about 12 arcsecs). Raman spectroscopy also indicates that the residual biaxial in-plane strain decreases with increasing epilayer thickness initially, but becomes essentially constant between 6 and 10 μm. Structural defect density shows the most significant reduction in the first 2 μm of growth. Phosphorus implantation was used to generate n+/p junctions for the measurement of the critical electric field in 3C-SiC. Based on current-voltage analyses, the critical electric field in p-type 3C-SiC with a doping of 2x1017 cm-3 is 1.3x106 V/cm.
Authors: Etienne Pernot, J. Härtwig, Michel Pons, Roland Madar
Abstract: Recently, in some silicon carbide single crystals, some micropipes associated with screw dislocation have been observed by X-ray topography and the strain field around them produced images similar to those of screw dislocations with a very large Burgers vector, about 667 nm. The radius of the hole in the centre of the micropipe is less than 10 'm. This value and the theoretical predictions by Frank (about 7.8 mm) using the Burgers vector magnitude show a large discrepancy. In this paper we present Atomic Force Microscopy experiments around this kind of defects. The Burgers vector magnitude of the screw dislocation and the value of the radius have been measured by this technique. Not only one dislocation, but several have been observed around the micropipe. We concluded that it is in better agreement with the Frank theory modified by Cabrera and Levine concerning kinetic effects during the growth.
Authors: S.I. Maximenko, P. Pirouz, Tangali S. Sudarshan
Abstract: More than fifty years ago Frank proposed that a dislocation with a Burgers vector larger than a critical value would have an open core. Since then, there has been controversy as to whether micropipes in SiC are examples of open core screw dislocations. In this work open core dislocations in 4H-SiC material are investigated by AFM. The results are interpreted on the basis of Frank’s theory and the surface energy of SiC is estimated from the critical value of Burgers vector. Finally, the extracted surface energy is compared with the results of other research.
Authors: Ejiro Emorhokpor, E.P. Carlson, Jian Wei Wan, Arnd Dietrich Weber, C. Basceri, Jason R. Jenny, R. Sandhu, James D. Oliver, F. Burkeen, A. Somanchi, V. Velidandla, F. Orazio, A. Blew, M.S. Goorsky, Michael Dudley, William M. Vetter
Abstract: Micropipe density (MPD) is a crucial parameter for silicon carbide (SiC) substrates that determines the quality, stability and yield of the semiconductor devices built on these substrates. The importance of MPD is underscored by the fact that all existing specifications for 6H- and 4H-SiC substrates set upper limits for it. Several methods for measuring the MPD are known, however, their reliability and applicability to various types of substrates (e.g. semiinsulating, conducting, etc.) has not been systematically studied. The subject of this paper is a comparative study of various techniques used for the MPD measurement accompanied by statistical analysis of the results. The study was initiated by several organizations working in the immediate field of silicon carbide or in closely related fields and included SiC substrate manufacturers, substrate consumers, equipment manufacturers and universities. The study represented a round robin experiment in which MPD was measured on thirty SiC wafers of various pedigrees. The values of MPD have been determined using both destructive and non-destructive techniques. The repeatability of each technique is analyzed and compared with that of other techniques.
Authors: Jian Wei Wan, Seung Ho Park, Gil Yong Chung, E.P. Carlson, Mark J. Loboda
Abstract: Micropipes are considered to be a major device killer in SiC wafers. Developing a method to count and map micropipes efficiently and accurately has been a challenging task to date. In this work, a new method based on KOH etching and full wafer, high resolution digital imaging is developed to map and count micropipes in both conductive and semi-insulating SiC wafers. This method is also compared with a non-destructive method based on laser light scattering and a good agreement between the two methods is demonstrated.
Authors: Jie Dong, Li Wang, Xiao Bo Hu, Xian Xiang Li, Juan Li, Shou Zhen Jiang, Xiu Fang Chen, Xian Gang Xu, Min Hua Jiang
Abstract: 4H-SiC single crystal with a diameter of 1.5’’ has been grown by the seed sublimation method. Regions of mixed polytypes are assessed by high resolution X-ray diffractometry with the asymmetrical diffraction geometry. Multiple reflections are observed from the rocking curve measurements of a longitudinal cut 4H-SiC slice. Those reflections are indexed to be 2131 and 2131 of 4H-SiC, 2130 , 2131 , 2131 , 2132 and 2132 of 6H-SiC, 2131 , 2132 , 2134 , 2135 and 2137 of 15R-SiC respectively based on the lattice constants of different polytypes in SiC crystal. It is believed that the polytypes can be identified by high resolution X-ray diffractometry.
Authors: Björn Magnusson, Reino Aavikko, Kimmo Saarinen, Nguyen Tien Son, Erik Janzén
Abstract: Semi-insulating SiC grown by the HTCVD technique are studied by luminescence and absorption measurements and the results are compared to PAS and SIMS results. We have found that metal impurities are present but only in very small concentrations. The semi-insulating properties are instead determined by the intrinsic defects, mostly the silicon vacancy in hydrocarbon rich grown material and the carbon vacancy in the hydrocarbon poor grown material. The hydrocarbon poor material is stable upon annealing both from a vacancy concentration point of view and from a resistivity point of view. The hydrocarbon rich grown material does not stand the annealing at 1600 °C and the resistivity is decreased; from the absorption and PAS measurements we have observed that the decrease in silicon vacancy concentration fits the growth of the vacancy clusters.

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