Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology XIII

Volumes 156-158

doi: 10.4028/

Paper Title Page

Authors: Manfred Reiche, O. Moutanabbir, Jan Hoentschel, U.M. Gösele, Stefan Flachowsky, Manfred Horstmann
Abstract: Strained silicon channels are one of the most important Technology Boosters for further Si CMOS developments. The mobility enhancement obtained by applying appropriate strain provides higher carrier velocity in MOS channels, resulting in higher current drive under a fixed supply voltage and gate oxide thickness. The physical mechanism of mobility enhancement, methods of strain generation and their application for advanced VLSI devices is reviewed.
Authors: Oleg Kononchuk, Didier Landru, Christelle Veytizou
Abstract: High temperature annealing of SOI wafers in non-oxidized ambient leads to internal Buried Oxide (BOX) dissolution. The underlying mechanisms and kinetics of this effect are discussed. High quality SOI wafers with very thin BOX down to 2nm are demonstrated utilizing optimized annealing conditions. Hybrid SOI/bulk wafers are obtained by the new process applying silicon nitride mask on the wafer surface. Stability of SOI and Si3N4/SOI systems at high temperatures is discussed and optimized process window is determined.
Authors: J. Kouvetakis, Jose Menendez, John Tolle
Abstract: Group-IV semiconductors, including alloys incorporating Sn, have been grown on dimensionally dissimilar Si substrates using novel molecular hydride chemistries with tunable reactivities that enable low temperature, CMOS compatible integration via engineering of the interface microstructure. Here we focus on properties of three such Ge-based systems including: (1) device quality Ge layers with thicknesses >5m possessing dislocation densities <105/cm2 are formed using molecular mixtures of Ge2H6 and highly reactive (GeH3)2CH2 organometallic additives circumventing the classical Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism, (2) metastable GeSn alloys are grown on Si via reactions of Ge2H6 and SnD4, and (3) ternary SiGeSn analogs are produced lattice-matched to Ge-buffered Si using admixtures of SiGeH6, SiGe2H8, SnD4, Ge2H6, and Si3H8. Optical experiments and prototype device fabrication demonstrate that the ternary SiGeSn system represents the first group-IV alloy with a tunable electronic structure at fixed lattice constant, effectively decoupling band gap and strain and eliminating the most important limitation in device designs based on group-IV materials. Doping at levels higher than 1019 cm-3 (both p and n-type) is achieved for all the above semiconductor systems using a similar precursor chemistry approach. Electrical and infrared optical experiments demonstrate that doped GeSn and SiGeSn have mobilities that compare or exceed that of bulk Ge. The potential applications of these materials, including micro- and optoelectronics as well as photovoltaics and thermoelectricity, are discussed.
Authors: V.I. Vdovin, N.D. Zakharov, Eckhard Pippel, P. Werner, M.G. Milvidskii, M. Ries, M. Seacrist, Robert J. Falster
Abstract: Kinetics of oxide layer dissolution and atomic structure of Si-Si interface in Si wafer bonded structures have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Samples of Si(001)/SiO2/Si(001) and Si(110)/SiO2/Si(001) structures were fabricated by direct hydrophilic wafer bonding of 200 mm wafers followed by high temperature annealing. It is found that the decomposition rate of oxide layer and formation of Si-Si bonded interface depends very much on lattice mismatch and twist angle.
Authors: N.V. Frantskevich, A.V. Frantskevich, A.K. Fedotov, A.V. Mazanik
Abstract: Standard p-type 12 cm Cz Si wafers were implanted by helium ions. The implanted and nonimplanted samples were subsequently subjected to nitrogen plasma treatment and final vacuum annealing. SEM studies have shown the absence of large-scale defects on the top wafer surface and the presence of a layer revealing contrast with surrounding silicon on the cleavage surface at a depth corresponding to the projected range Rp. Scanning over a crater formed by ion sputtering has exposed no defects to the depth of Rp and beyond. At the same time, at a depth of Rp there is a layer with the morphology (structure) significantly different from the surrounding defect-free areas. The measurements of transverse conductivity have shown that the wafer with the formed nitrogen-contained layer possesses dielectric properties with a breakdown voltage up to 15 V.
Authors: Feng Liu, Huan Peng Han, Yi Meng Wang, Li Ying Tong
Authors: Douglas M. Jordan, Kanad Mallik, Robert J. Falster, Peter R. Wilshaw
Abstract: The concept of fully encapsulated, semi-insulating silicon (SI-Si), Czochralski-silicon-on-insulator (CZ-SOI) substrates for silicon microwave devices is presented. Experimental results show that, using gold as a compensating impurity, a Si resistivity of order 400 kΩcm can be achieved at room temperature using lightly phosphorus doped substrates. This compares favourably with the maximum of ~180kΩcm previously achieved using lightly boron doped wafers and is due to a small asymmetry of the position of the two gold energy levels introduced into the band gap. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the resistivity of the semi-insulating material show that a resistivity ~5kΩcm can be achieved at 100°C. Thus the substrates are suitable for microwave devices working at normal operating temperatures and should allow Si to be used for much higher frequency microwave applications than currently possible.
Authors: Antonio Luque, Antonio Martí
Abstract: The state of the art of the intermediate band solar cells is presented with emphasis on the use of impurities or alloys to form bulk intermediate band materials. Quantum dot intermediate band solar cells start to present already attractive efficiencies but many difficulties jeopardize the immediate achievement of record efficiency cells. To complement this research it is worthwhile examining bulk materials presenting an IB. Four or perhaps more materials have already proven to have it and several paths for the research of more are today open but no solar cell has yet been published based on them. This topic has already attracted many researches and abundant funds for their development worldwide.
Authors: Vladimir V. Voronkov, G.I. Voronkova, A.V. Batunina, V.N. Golovina, Robert J. Falster, M. Cornara, N.B. Tiurina, A.S. Guliaeva
Abstract: The generation of Thermal Donors in Si is a nucleation process controlled by several mobile On clusters. The rate-limiting transitions are found to be O1  O2 and O4  O5. The individual transition rates G12 and G45, and also G23 and G34 are deduced from the experimental data. From the transient variation of the generation rate G(t), the equilibrium concentration of the dimers is found, and with it the dimeric diffusivity is also defined. In samples pre-treated at high T, the G(t) dependence has a maximum, due to quenched-in fast-diffusing oxygen monomers (FDMs). The concentration and diffusivity of FDMs were determined.
Authors: A. Andrianakis, Charalamos A. Londos, Andrzej Misiuk, Valentin V. Emtsev, Gagik A. Oganesyan, H. Ohyama
Abstract: We report studies of defects in electron-irradiated Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si) subjected to thermal treatments at 1000oC and 1130oC with or without the application of high hydrostatic pressure of ~ 11 Kbars, prior to irradiation. The work is primarily focused on the impact of the pre-treatments on the production rate of the VO defect and its conversion to the VO2 defect. To this end, IR spectroscopy measurements were carried out and the amplitudes of the VO band (830 cm-1) and the VO2 band (888 cm-1) were monitored in the course of an isochronal anneal sequence up to ~ 550oC. Thermal treatments at 1000oC result in a reduction of the production rate of the VO defect. This rate however increases when pressure is applied during the treatment. The opposite behavior is observed for thermal treatments at 1130oC. The production rate of the VO increases slightly in heat treated samples but decreases substantially when high pressure is applied. Similar trends show the conversion of the VO to the VO2 defect for the corresponding treatments. The results are discussed taking into account the oxygen precipitates formed at the various treatments and their impact on the amount of primary defects available during irradiation which affects the production of the vacancy-oxygen defects.

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