Environmental Biotechnology and Materials Engineering

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Authors: Jian Ru Tian, Guo Li Chen, Guang Feng Kang, Xiu Ping Zheng
Abstract: Using total phosphorus (TP) concentrations to estimate eutrophication risk is problematic for management purposes, as only some forms of P are biologically available for phytoplankton growth. This study estimated the bioavailability of P fractions of water and the floodplain sediment in the lower reaches of the Hanjiang River in China using multiple regressions. And the effects of concentrations of P fractions on algal growth were also studied. The results showed that the total soluble P (TSP) and the particulate P (PP) can well predict the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in water samples. And the exchangeable P (exch-P) and the P bound to Al, Fe, and Mn oxides and hydroxides (Fe/Al–P) were adapted to predicting the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the floodplain sediment samples.
Authors: Li Guo Ma, De Sun, Ling He, Chang Hai Du
Abstract: The degradation reaction of cellulose under the condition of microwave irradiation in an acidic aqueous medium including H2O2 has been investigated. The main factors, the solution acidity, reaction temperature and time, can have an effect on the cellulose degradation. The cellulose oxidative degradable polymerization was associated mainly with the action of releasing from H2O2. The scheme reflecting the main pathways of cellulose degradation in the reaction system of HCl/ H2O2 is proposed. A comparative study was investigated to evaluate the effects of microwave and conventional heating on cellulose degradation.
Authors: Rong Cheng Liu, Yan You Wu
Abstract: Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina are the dominant plant species of Quanzhou Bay Estuarine Wetland. In this study, we had established the four-parametric logistic equations of plant height, tree crown diameter and leaf length versus the time after they were transplanted (sowed). The development pattern of the wetland plants was different among species and locations. The growth parameters estimated using four logistic equations is able to provide detailed plant dynamic growth information for Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia candel and Avicennia marina. By comparison, it is difficult to assess the adaptability of Kandelia candel to the environment of the region whether the upstream or downstream. However, we can deduce that Avicennia marina is suitable for growing in the upstream and downstream of Luoyang River, not in the midstream. The results will provide scientific basis for the allocation and arrange on plant species in the wetland.
Authors: Zhan Guo Lu, Wei Li, Peng Jun Wang
Abstract: The chemical composition of essential oil (1.18% yield) from celery seeds by hydrodistillation extraction method was analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 23 constituents were detected, in which 18 compounds that account for 91.38% were identified. The main constituents were limonene (31.15%), β-selinene (22.28%) , p-cresyl isovalerate (14.94%), α-2-propenylbenzenemethanol (9.872% ), β-myrcene (4.32%) and α-selinene (4.32%). The abilities of scavenging DPPH radical of the essential oil and hydrodistillation residue were studied. The result indicated that the maximum scavenging rates was 98.1% when 0.20 mL of the oil was used. The extracts of residue by methanol, ethanol and acetone also has remarkable scavenging activity. The result showed that the scavenging rates of the methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of the residue were 91.5%, 91.2% and 56.2% respectively, when 0.10 mL of the extract solutions was used.
Authors: Bing Hua Yan, Hai Jun Yang, Jian Hong Wei, Lin Luo
Abstract: A bacterial strain OPQa3 capable of utilizing nonylphenol polyoxyethylene (NPnEO) as sole carbon source was isolated from water samples collected from tannery waste treatment plant suffered long-time application of NPnEO by enrichment method. It was preliminarily identified as Brevundimonas sp. (most similar to Brevundimonas diminuta (EU434566.1)), according to the observation of morphological characteristics, physiological-biochemical tests and the similarity analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. Inoculated 2% of OPQa3 suspension, to give a final OD600 of approximately 0.70, to inorganic salt medium in which the initial concentration of NPnEO was 746 mg•L-1, degradation test showed that, the degradation rate of strain OPQa3 was 84.5% within 120 hours, the optimum temperature was 30°C while the optimum pH value was about 7, and the growth period was of 24 hours.
Authors: Yi Tong Duan, Fang Jing Liu, Lu Wang, Yong Feng Li
Abstract: Biohydrogenbacterium R3 sp.nov, as a typical strains of hydrogen production bacteria, was isolated from the activated sludge in the biohydrogen production reaction by using culture media of HPB-LR which was designed particularly for isolating anaerobic fermentation bacteria and an improved Hungate rolling tubes technique and a plate method of culture bottle (PMCB) which were used for counting and isolating the anaerobes by our lab. Two representative strains of hydrogen production bacteria, namely RL20, RL37, and a strain of no hydrogen production bacterium, namely RL16 were used as contrast analysis. Experiment results indicated that the distributed proportion of ethanol and acetic acid was 95%-99% in the total amount of VAFs (Volatile Fatty Acid) of R3 which were typical ethanol-type fermentation, and the total amount of ethanol and acetic acid was commensurate with that of propionic acid.
Authors: Yong Feng Li, Yi Tong Duan, Fang Jing Liu, Lu Wang, Yi Xuan Wang
Abstract: Anaerobic process of biohydrogen production was developed recently. The representative strain of hydrogen production bacteria, namely fermentative hydrogen producing bacterial strain B49,was isolated from the activated sludge which was cultured artificially by our lab. In this study, there were some different C/N ratios employed. Experiment results indicated that the concentration of carbon and nitrogen had a great effect upon hydrogen production of B49, when C/N=2.5, glucose got the highest degraded efficiency, and at a C/N ratio of 3.3, the bio-gas and hydrogen production peaked with 159mL and 37.5mL, respectively, which considered that the optimum C/N ratio on the growth and hydrogen production was 3:1. Furthermore, the mainly terminal liquid products of B49 were ethanol and acetic acid. With the increase of the total organic nitrogen, final pH value decreased gradually.
Authors: Xin Yu Han, Li Yang, Chang Xiu Han, Li Li Li, Bao Gui Zhang
Abstract: Under atmospheric pressure, a novel preparation of sodium diethylphosphinate was carried out by free-radical addition reaction of ethylene and sodium hypophosphite on gas-liquid interface. A self-design gas-liquid reactor was used to improve efficiency of the addition reaction , and made the product with purity of 99% obtained only in 6 hours,even no additional purification. The molecular structure of sodium diethylphosphinate was confirmed by FTIR, and 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis.
Authors: Hong Fang Ji, Ling Wen Zhang, Hai Yan Zhang, Ming Duo Yang, Yuan Zhang
Abstract: Chroogomphis rutillus is an ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom available in China. The ethanolic, cold water and hot water extracts were prepared and their antioxidant properties studied. At 4 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract showed a high reducing power of 1.561, whereas those of cold water and hot water extracts were 1.161 and 0.808. With regard to the scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, extracts were effective in the order: ethanolic > cold water > hot water extracts. EC50 values for chelating ability on ferrous ions for ethanolic, cold water and hot water extracts were 15.755, 0.059, and 0.067 mg/mL, respectively. Based on EC50 values, the various extracts from C. rutillus were effective antioxidants.

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