Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005

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Authors: Michio Tajima, E. Higashi, Toshihiko Hayashi, Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Hiromu Shiomi
Abstract: The effectiveness of room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) mapping was demonstrated for nondestructive detection of structural defects, such as dislocations, micropipes and stacking faults, in SiC wafers. PL spectra of bulk wafers were dominated by deep-level emissions due to Si vacancies, vanadium and undefined centers like UD-1 at room temperature, while those from epitaxial wafers involved near band-edge emission. We developed a whole-wafer PL intensity mapping system with a capability of zooming in on the area of interest with a spatial resolution as high as 1 μm, and showed that the mapping patterns agree well with the etch-pit patterns originating from the structural defects both on a wafer scale and on a microscopic scale. The intensity contrast around the defects varied depending on the emission band, suggesting differences in their interactions with impurities and point defects.
Authors: Sashi Kumar Chanda, Yaroslav Koshka, Murugesu Yoganathan
Abstract: A room temperature PL mapping technique was applied to establish the origin of resistivity variation in PVT-grown 6H SiC substrates. A direct correlation between the native defect-related PL and resistivity was found in undoped (V-free) samples. In vanadium-doped samples with low vanadium content, the resistivity showed a good correlation with the total PL signal consisting of contributions from both vanadium and native point defects. Well-known UD1 and UD3 levels were revealed by low-temperature PL spectroscopy. Some correlation was observed between these low-temperature PL signatures and the resistivity distribution.
Authors: Seung Ho Park, Mark J. Loboda, Michael J. Spaulding
Authors: Joshua D. Caldwell, Orest J. Glembocki, Darren M. Hansen, Gil Yong Chung, Karl D. Hobart, Francis J. Kub
Abstract: Presented is the use of a commercial optical scanner for the mapping of doping density ( ) D N of SiC substrates and as a local probe for D N in different regions. This method provides a fast and cost effective method for determining D N homogeneity, examining local electrical characteristics, and recognizing defect sites including areas of different polytypes or polycrystallinity. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to calibrate the transmission intensity with D N . It is shown that features presented in the calculated D N maps strongly correlate to those observed in Lehighton resistivity maps.
Authors: Murugesu Yoganathan, Ejiro Emorhokpor, Thomas Kerr, A. Gupta, C.D. Tanner, Ilya Zwieback
Abstract: SiC substrates produced at II-VI, Inc. have been characterized using x-ray rocking curve mapping (topography). The rocking curves have been measured in the -scan mode for the (0006) Bragg reflection of 6H and the (0004) reflection of 4H SiC substrates. The maps contain information extracted from the rocking curves, such as the peak angle () and the rocking curve broadening (FWHM). In the case when lattice distortion is present due to the elastic or plastic deformation, the peak angle () changes gradually upon scanning, with the d/dx gradient proportional to the lattice curvature in the plane of diffraction. Multi-peak reflections and/or sharp change in the value of  indicate the presence of misoriented grains. X-ray rocking curve mapping of SiC substrates yields excellent measures of crystalline quality that contain important information on the lattice strain and sub-grain misorientation.
Authors: Timothy Bogart, W.J. Everson, Rick D. Gamble, Ed Oslosky, David Snyder, Eugene Furman, Steve Perini, M. Lanagan
Abstract: Semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC) wafers are important as substrates for high frequency devices such as AlGaN-GaN HEMT’s. A nondestructive characterization technique has been developed to measure the dielectric properties of SiC wafers in the GHz frequency range where the devices will operate in order to validate wafers for high yield working devices. The dielectric loss is measured at approximately 16 GHz in a split microwave cavity. Initial results show a correlation where the dielectric loss decreases as the resistivity increases, where the resistivity was measured using a Contactless Resistivity Mapping system (COREMA). The uniformity of dielectric loss across SiC wafers was evaluated using a split post dielectric resonator cavity fixed at 5.5GHz to measure the dielectric loss at five points on a wafer. Dielectric loss as a function of temperature from room temperature to 400°C was also studied.
Authors: Yue Ke, Fei Yan, Robert P. Devaty, Wolfgang J. Choyke
Abstract: A hybrid columnar and dendritic porous structure has been developed in n-type 6H SiC using photoelectrochemical etching with proper control of the applied voltage and current density. The diameter of the formed columnar pores is around 200-500 nm. A possible formation mechanism due to the spatial distribution of holes and the HF concentration gradient in the pores is proposed. A self-supporting film with this morphology is a promising candidate for protein dialysis.
Authors: Yue Ke, Catherine Moisson, S. Gaan, R.M. Feenstra, Robert P. Devaty, Wolfgang J. Choyke
Abstract: The effects of initial surface morphology on the early stages of porous SiC formation under highly biased photoelectrochemical etching conditions are discussed. We etched both Si-face and C-face polished n-type 6H SiC with different surface finishes prepared either by mechanical polishing or by chemical mechanical polishing at NOVASiC. For both Si-face and C-face porous SiC samples, a variety of surface and cross sectional porous morphologies, due to different surface finishes, are observed. The proposed explanation is based on the spatial distribution of holes at the interface of the SiC and electrolyte inside the semiconductor.
Authors: G.T. Andrews, C.K. Young, A. Polomska, Maynard J. Clouter, Yue Ke, Robert P. Devaty, Wolfgang J. Choyke
Abstract: Brillouin spectra have been recorded for a series of supported films of p-type porous 6H-SiC with a branched morphology and porosities in the range from 30% to 58%. Complex spectra comprising up to 7 identifiable components were observed in some cases. An effective medium model is being developed as an aid in interpreting the spectra, and preliminary results are presented.
Authors: A.J. Rosenbloom, S. Nie, Yue Ke, Robert P. Devaty, Wolfgang J. Choyke
Abstract: We present relative recovery data for six proteins diffusing through porous silicon carbide membranes having a hybrid columnar/dendritic morphology. These membranes are promising candidates for implantable biosensors. The results are interpreted using an effective medium model.

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