Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005

Paper Title Page

Authors: A.V. Adedeji, Ayayi Claude Ahyi, John R. Williams, M.J. Bozack, S.E. Mohney, B. Liu, James D. Scofield
Abstract: Composite ohmic contacts designed for SiC devices operating in air at 350°C have been studied. Ohmic contacts to n- and p-4H-SiC were protected against inter-diffusion and oxidation by Ta-Si-N layers obtained by sputter deposition from a TaSi2 target in a mixture of Ar and N2. Platinum was sputter-deposited at 250°C to promote adhesion between the Ta-Si- N barrier layer and a thick Au cap layer. Platinum also acts as a barrier to the diffusion of Au. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the composite contacts were stable after hundreds of hours of annealing in air at 350°C. We report the effects of thermal aging on the specific contact resistance and the semiconductor sheet resistance, and the results of wire bond pull and shear tests following aging for Ta-Si-N / Pt / Au stacks deposited on both SiO2 dielectric layers and the ohmic contact layers.
Authors: S.H. Wang, Owen Arnold, C.M. Eichfeld, S.E. Mohney, A.V. Adedeji, John R. Williams
Abstract: Tantalum-ruthenium diffusion barriers for contacts to SiC were investigated in this work. Stable specific contact resistances of (2 ± 1) x 10-5 Ω cm2 and (4 ± 2) x 10-5 Ω cm2 were measured on p-type 4H SiC for Al/Ni and Ni ohmic contacts, respectively, when they were beneath Ru-rich Ta-Ru barriers aged at 350 °C for 3000 h in air. Annealed Ni ohmic contacts on n-SiC aged at 350 °C in air for 1000 h (the longest time tested) are also very stable. Pull tests revealed greatly improved adhesion between layers in metallization stacks that contained Ta-Ru barriers in place of previously studied Ta-Ru-N barriers. A 5 nm Ta layer inserted between the Ru-rich Ta-Ru barriers and Au was found to further improve the adhesion of the metallization stacks.
Authors: Hyung Seok Lee, Martin Domeij, Carl Mikael Zetterling, Mikael Östling, Jun Lu
Abstract: One important challenge in SiC Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) fabrication is to form good ohmic contacts to both n-type and p-type SiC. In this paper, we have examined contact study in a SiC BJT process with sputter deposition of titanium tungsten contacts to both n-type and p-type regions followed by annealing at different temperatures between 750 oC and 950 oC. The contacts were characterized using linear transmission line method (LTLM) structures. To see the formation of compound phases, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scans were performed before and after annealing. The results indicate that 5 minutes annealing at 950 oC of the n+ contact is sufficient whereas the p+ contacts remain non-ohmic after 30 minutes annealing. The n+ emitter structure contact resistivity after 5 min annealing with 750 oC and 950 oC was 1.08 × 10-3 5cm2 and 4.08 × 10-4 5cm2, respectively. Small amorphous regions of silicon and carbon as well as titanium tungsten carbide regions were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), whereas less carbide formation and no amorphous regions were found in a sample with unsuccessful formation of TiW ohmic contacts.
Authors: M. Gao, Sergey P. Tumakha, T. Onishi, Susumu Tsukimoto, Masanori Murakami, Leonard J. Brillson
Abstract: We have used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence and Auger electron spectroscopies, DRCLS and AES, respectively, to probe the electronic structure and the composition of Ti/Al ohmic contacts to p-type SiC on a nanometer scale. A continuous Ti-Si-C compound layer was observed using the Auger depth profile. No interfacial Al segregation was found. The secondary electron threshold technique showed a continuous decrease in work function from the p-type SiC to the Ti-Si-C compound layer. Our results support an ohmic contact mechanism by an intermediate semiconductor layer which reduces the otherwise large interfacial Schottky barrier height. DRCLS revealed a ~2.78 eV sub-band gap transition enhanced by interfacial reaction in the near-interface SiC, suggesting the formation of additional C or Si vacancies.
Authors: John Crofton, John R. Williams, A.V. Adedeji, James D. Scofield, S. Dhar, Leonard C. Feldman, M.J. Bozack
Abstract: Nickel ohmic contacts to p-type epitaxial and heavily implanted 4H-SiC are described. Room and elevated temperature results are presented. Elevated temperature measurements of specific contact resistance are compared to theoretical calculations. The calculations require the acceptor doping concentration and the contact’s barrier height. Epitaxial material has a known acceptor value thereby allowing the barrier height to be deduced by requiring agreement between the calculated and measured values of the contact resistance. Calculations of the contact resistance for implanted material use the barrier height from the epitaxial results along with a variable activated acceptor doping concentration which is adjusted to give agreement with measured room temperature specific contact resistances. Specific contact resistances as low as 7x10-6 ohm-cm2 fabricated on the Si face have been obtained to epitaxial 4H p-type material whereas contacts to implanted material result in much larger contact resistance values of 4x10-5 ohm-cm2. These results, when compared to theoretical calculations, indicate that activated acceptor doping concentrations in heavily implanted material are on the order of 2% of the implant concentration.
Authors: Wei Jie Lu, G.R. Landis, W.E. Collins, W.C. Mitchel
Abstract: Al based alloys, such as Ti/Al, are commonly used for ohmic contacts on p-type SiC. The interfacial structures of a metal alloy film on SiC are very complicated after annealing. Al is considered as the key element responsible for forming ohmic contacts on p-type SiC, and reacts with C from SiC and forms Al4C3 and Si during annealing. In this study, we have investigated ohmic contact formation of a single component Al4C3 film on p-type SiC. Based on the stoichiometric formation of Al4C3 between Al and C at high temperatures, several samples with various Al/C mole ratios have been examined for ohmic contact formation after different annealing temperatures. Carbon rich and stoichiometric Al4C3 films form ohmic contacts on p-type 4H-SiC (~2.8 x1018 cm-3 ) after annealing at 800 and 900°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data have shown that a single component Al4C3 is formed when an ohmic contact on p-type SiC is activated. Al/SiC, as the control sample, does not form ohmic contacts under the same conditions. This study reveals that Al4C3 can be responsible for forming ohmic contacts on p-type SiC. However, its chemical instability requires that the secondary metal is necessary to form stable ohmic contacts when Albased films are used.
Authors: Bang Hung Tsao, Jacob Lawson, James D. Scofield
Abstract: AlNi and Ni2Si based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC have been produced using low energy ion implantation, a Ti contact layer, and sequential anneals. Low resistivities were promoted by degenerately (>1020 cm-3) doping the surface region of 4H-SiC epilayers via Al+ implantation. High acceptor activation and improved surface morphology was achieved by capping the samples with pyrolized photoresist and using a two-step anneal sequence in argon. Ti/AlNi/W and Ti/Ni2Si/W stacks of varying Ti and/or binary layer thickness were compared at varying anneal temperatures. AlNi based samples reliably and repeatedly achieved specific contact resistivities as low as 5.5 x10-5 ohm-cm2 after annealing at temperatures of 700-1000°C. For the Ni2Si samples, resistivities as low 4.5x10-4 ohm-cm2 were reached after annealing between 750 and 1100°C. Similarly, a set of Ti/AlNi/Au samples, with or without Ge as an additional contact layer, were prepared via the same procedures. In this case, specific contact resistivities as low as 5.0 x10-4 ohm-cm2 were achieved after annealing the Ti/AlNi/Au samples between 600 and 700°C for 30 minutes in a dynamic argon atmosphere or under high vacuum. The lowest resistivities were realized using thicker (~ 40 nm) Ti layers. I-V analysis revealed superior linear characteristics for the AlNi system, which also exhibited a more stable microstructure after anneal. SIMS and RBS were used to analyze the stability of the stacks subsequent to thermal treatment. AFM analysis demonstrated the superiority of photoresist capping over alternatives in minimizing surface roughness. Linear ohmic behavior after significantly reduced anneal temperature is the main observation of the present study.
Authors: Sergey P. Tumakha, L.M. Porter, D.J. Ewing, Qamar-ul Wahab, X.Y. Ma, Tangali S. Sudarshan, Leonard J. Brillson
Abstract: We have used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) to correlate subsurface deep level emissions and double barrier current-voltage (I-V) characteristics across an array of Ni/4H-SiC diodes on the same epitaxial wafer. These results demonstrate not only a correspondence between these optical features and measured barrier heights, but they also suggest that such states may limit the range of SB heights in general. DRCLS of near-ideal diodes show a broad 2.45 eV emission at common to all diode areas and associated with either impurities or inclusions. Strongly non-ideal diodes exhibit additional defect emissions at 2.2 and 2.65 eV. On the other hand, there is no correlation between the appearance of morphological defects observed by polarized light microscopy or X-ray topography and the presence of double barrier characteristics. The DRCLS observations of defect level transitions that correlate with non-ideal Schottky barriers suggest that these sub-surface defect features can be used to predict Schottky barrier behavior.
Authors: D.J. Ewing, Qamar-ul Wahab, Sergey P. Tumakha, Leonard J. Brillson, X.Y. Ma, Tangali S. Sudarshan, L.M. Porter
Abstract: In this study, we performed a statistical analysis of 500 Ni Schottky diodes distributed across a 2-inch, n-type 4H-SiC wafer with an epilayer grown by chemical vapor deposition. A majority of the diodes displayed ideal thermionic emission when under forward bias, whereas some diodes showed ‘double-barrier’ characteristics with a ‘knee’ in the low-voltage log I vs. V plot. X-ray topography (XRT) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed no correlations between screw dislocations and micropipes and the presence of double-barrier diodes. Depth resolved cathodoluminescence (DRCLS) indicated that certain deep-level states are associated with the observed electrical variations.
Authors: Y. Wang, M.K. Mikhov, B.J. Skromme
Abstract: The impact of high temperature annealing using graphite encapsulation (formed by baking photoresist) on the electrical properties of Ni Schottky diodes formed on the annealed surfaces is studied. The surface morphology is also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Annealing for 10 minutes at temperatures up to 1800 °C with graphite encapsulation actually reduces the high-current ideality factor of the diodes while raising the current-voltage barrier height (linearly extrapolated to unity ideality factor) from 1.453 V to 1.67-1.73 V. Excess leakage current occurs only in a subset of diodes, which are believed to be affected by extended defects. The AFM images show no significant surface roughening, and the graphite can be removed after processing. This encapsulation method is found to be highly effective in preserving the electronic properties of the surface during high temperature annealing.

Showing 211 to 220 of 379 Paper Titles