Abstract: Measuring residual stress at the sub-micron scale imposes experimental challenges. We propose a new technique, namely the incremental micro-hole-drilling method (IµHM), for measurement of residual stress profiles as a function of depth with high spatial definition. Like its macroscale counterpart, it is applicable to either crystalline or amorphous materials, but at the sub-micron scale. Our method involves micro-hole milling using the focused ion beam of a dual beam FEGSEM/FIB microscope. The surface displacements are tracked by digital image correlation of SEM images recorded during milling. The displacement fields mapped around the whole are used to reconstruct the variation of the in-plane stress tensor as a function of depth. In this way the multi-axial state of residual stress has been characterised around drilled holes of 2 microns or so, enabling the profiling of the stress variation at the sub-micron scale to a depth of 2 microns. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of this method by measuring the stresses in a surface-severe-plastically-deformed (S2PD) Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk metallic glass (in atomic percent, at.%) sample after failure under four-point-bending-fatigue.
Abstract: Total hip replacement is a highly successful operation; restoring function and reducing pain in arthritis patients. In recent years, thinner resurfacing acetabular cups have been introduced in order to preserve bone stock and reduce the risk of dislocation. However concerns have been raised that deformation of these cups could adversely affect the lubrication regime of the bearing; leading to equatorial and edge contact, possibly causing the implants to jam. This study aims to assess the amount of deformation which occurs due to the tight peripheral fit experienced during press-fit by applying rim loading to three different designs of acetabular cup: a clinically successful cobalt chrome resurfacing cup, a prototype composite resurfacing cup and a clinically successful polyethylene monobloc cup.
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to measure the deformation and to validate Finite Element (FE) models. DIC provided a non-contacting method to measure displacement; meaning the load could be increased continuously rather than in steps as in previous studies.
The physical testing showed that the cobalt chrome cups were significantly stiffer than the composite prototype and polyethylene cups. The FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results for all three cups and were able to predict the deformation to within 10%. FE models were also created to investigate the effect of cup outside diameter and wall thickness on stiffness under rim loading. Increasing outside diameter resulted in a linear reduction in stiffness for all three materials. Increasing the wall thickness resulted in an exponential increase in cup stiffness.
Rim loading an acetabular shell does not accurately simulate the in vivo conditions; however it does provide a simple method for comparing cups made of different materials.
Abstract: Laser ultrasonics opened possibilities to measure thermal and mechanical property of skin which occupies an essential position and is beneficial in industrial and medical applications. This paper focuses on the thermal effect in the thermal section of the laser ultrasonic technique. A transient thermal analysis is developed and promoted to simulate the interaction between the laser pulse and human skin, using a multilayered ﬁnite element model (FEM). Chicken leg had been used and irradiated by KrF laser, the thermal reactions were detected and recorded by a thermal camera. By comparison, the thermal result of experiments and simulation matches.
Abstract: In this paper the biomechanical behavior and numerical evaluation results of three C3-C5 porcine cervical models created with different modeling techniques are shown. The objective of this evaluation is to know the differences between the biomechanical effects on a bone graft, which replaces a damaged C4 vertebral body, a titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) cervical plate, used to isolate the C4 damaged vertebra, and the influence on the compressive loads on the complete and instrumented C3-C5 cervical model. The biomechanical integrity of the healthy C3 and C5 vertebral body after the fixation of the cervical plate using titanium alloy screws is considered. Besides, 2-D Computer Tomography classic technique, 3-D Scanner Z-Corp 700 and a CT scanning Philips Brilliance system was used to create the three FEM models. In addition, 3-D Software as Pro-E Wildfire 4.0, ScanIP 3.1, UGS NX-4 and Geomagics R 10.0 was used to create specific numerical model. Main displacements and von Misses stresses between the upper and lower surfaces of the vertebral bodies and the bone graft and the influence of the titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) screws on the vertebral body of C3 and C5 were evaluated. The contribution of this study is to optimize the actual surgical technique once the numerical results on the FEM model have been analyzed. In other words, the numerical disparity between classic CT techniques versus 3-D modern techniques is established.
Abstract: This paper describes an innovative way to characterize the strength of spot welds. A wedge test has been developed to generate interfacial failures in weldments and observe in-situ the crack propagation. An energy analysis quantifies the spot weld crack resistance. Finite Element calculations investigate the stresses and strains along the crack front. A comparison of the local loading state with experimentally observed crack fronts provides the necessary data for a failure criterion in spot weld fusion zones. The method is applied to spot welds of Advanced High Strength steels.
Abstract: Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or alumino-thermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs.
In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modeling of the phenomena involved in the rail thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved alumino-thermic weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. Besides, experimental investigation was carried out in order to validate the numerical model. Hence, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. In the web region, both longitudinal and vertical components of residual stresses are tensile, which increases the susceptibility of that region to crack initiation and propagation from internal material defects. Indeed, weld fracture in track initiates at the web fillet. Thus, to be closer to real issue, fatigue tests specimens has been defined within the split-web area. Fatigue tests was performed on the defined specimens, welded by conventional and improved processes and obtained results adjudicates on the new advances.
Abstract: The use of ultrasonic excitation of tools and dies in metal forming operations has been the subject of ongoing research for many years. However, the lack of understanding about the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on the forming process has resulted in difficulties in maximising the benefits and applications of this technology. In particular, experimental characterisations of the effects of superimposing ultrasonic oscillations have largely relied on interpretations of measurements of the mean forming load and have ignored the oscillatory forces. Previous research  has shown that by applying ultrasonic vibrations to the lower platen in compression tests on pure aluminium specimens, the resulting stress-strain relationship can be characterised by a temporary effective softening of the material during intervals of ultrasonic excitation. The current research investigates this effect in a series of simple forming tests using a number of different metal specimens. In this research, the forming tests are conducted using a piezoelectric force transducer to measure the oscillatory force data during ultrasonic excitation of the die. It is shown that the benefits of superimposing ultrasonic excitation of the die are highly dependent on the material being formed and that, in many cases, the maximum oscillatory force exceeds the static forming load even where the mean forming load is reduced significantly during the interval of ultrasonic excitation.
Abstract: The surfaces of gas turbine components are coated with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) using a plasma spraying technique. A lot of effort has been expended examining the TBC interfacial strength, however studies examining how residual stress is formed after the process and how the coating stress changes with temperature are limited. In this report, the residual stress prediction model is proposed based on the splat deposition process. A simplified model including the plasma sprayed process is developed based on shear-lag theory. The simplification is given in continuous particle deposition process. That is, continuous particle deposited coating is modeled as a single layer, which is called by "deposition layer". This deposition layer is assumed to impact directly onto the substrate. The binding layer is also introduced to express multiple cracks caused by quenching stress in splats and sliding deformation at splat boundary. It is shown that the numerical analysis has good agreement with the associated experiments.
Abstract: Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in the automobile, aerospace and communication industries due to their low density, high strength to weight ratio, good impact resistance and castability. Magnesium alloys, previously not used in load bearing components and structural parts are strongly being considered for use in such applications. Impact events in vehicles and airplanes as well as developments in weaponry and high speed metal working are all characterized by high rates of loading. Understanding of the dynamic behaviour of materials is critical for proper design and use in different applications. In the current study, a cast magnesium alloy AZ91D has been investigated at quasi-static and higher strain rates in the range between 300 s-1 and 1500 s-1. The INSTRON machine was used to perform the quasi-static tests. High strain rate tests have been performed using the Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar (SHTB), a very useful and widely used tool to study the dynamic behaviour of variety of engineering materials. The results of a tensile testing indicate that the tensile properties including yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the elongation at fracture (Ef) are affected by the strain rate variation. Higher stresses are associated with higher strain rates. The alloy AZ91D displays approximately 45% higher tensile stresses at an average strain rate of approximately 1215/s than at quasi-static strain rate. The dependence of the yield stress and tensile strength on the strain rate in the range of high strain rate above 1000 s-1 is larger than that at lower strain rates. The alloy AZ91D is observed to be more strain rate sensitive for strain rate higher than 1000 s-1. A decrease in the strain rate sensitivity is also observed with the increasing strain in the specimen. It is observed that the hardening behaviour of the alloy is affected with increasing the strain rate. At high strain rates, the fracture of magnesium alloy AZ91D tends to transit from ductile to brittle.
Abstract: For a structure subjected to an intermediate velocity impact in which the duration of loading is in the order of milliseconds and in excess of the period of it’s first free vibration mode there is a relationship between impact duration and buckling load. Although this relationship results in higher buckling loads for shorter duration impacts, the precise nature of the correlation depends on a number of other factors, one of which is geometry. Since the design of many lightweight structures subject to dynamic loading in this intermediate range is based on the use of a static buckling load to which a load factor is then applied, it is essential that this factor accurately represents the relationship between the two and takes of account of any variations. Failure to do so will at least result in an over designed structure and at worst in catastrophic failure.
A series of finite element analyses (FEA) have been performed in order to determine the relationship between dynamic and static buckling loads for a range of stiffened panels with differing radii of curvature.
This paper describes preliminary tests performed to determine the feasibility of using high speed digital image correlation (DIC) to study such an impact and hence provide validation of the earlier FEA analyses. These are performed on a longitudinally stiffened panel subject to uniaxial compression, clamped within a rig designed to provide built-in end conditions and allow motion of one end in the direction of loading only. The specimen is tested using an accelerated drop test rig. Impact load is monitored throughout using a load cell. Full field displacement contours are obtained using a high speed DIC system. Results are presented which demonstrate deflection contours during and after impact enabling the path of the shock wave through the specimens to be determined. An initial comparison is then made the FEA results.